Fatigue and its association with sociodemographic variables among multiple sclerosis patients.
ABSTRACT To explore the relationship between fatigue, sociodemographic and clinical variables in a population of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS).
There is a need to identify empirical relationships with possible antecedents of fatigue among patients with MS.
A mailed questionnaire designed to survey sociodemographic variables and the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS) was mailed to 502 individuals from the population of patients with definite MS in the city of Oslo. A total of 368 (73%) responded. Clinical data were collected from the Oslo City MS-Registry.
The prevalence of fatigue in this population was 60.1%. The FSS score showed a negative correlation with education (r = -0.15, P < 0.01) and a positive correlation with age (r = 0.20, P < 0.001) and time since disease onset (r = 0.11, P < 0.05). When controlled for gender, level of education and time since disease onset, the data showed a positive relationship between fatigue and age (P < 0.001) among patients with primary progressive (PP) disease. This relationship between age and fatigue was not found among patients with relapsing-remitting/secondary progressive (RR/SP) disease.
The negative relationship between level of formal education (FE) and fatigue among individuals with RR/SP disease suggests that behavioral factors may be among the antecedents of fatigue in this patient group. In contrast to normative data from the general population, our findings revealed no differences in fatigue related to gender Thus, this study supports the hypothesis that there are disease-specific antecedents of fatigue among patients with MS.
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ABSTRACT: To investigate the applicability of the Swedish Occupational Fatigue Inventory and its ability to identify different dimensions of fatigue in people with multiple sclerosis with varying degrees of disease severity, and the correlation of each of its 5 dimensions with the Fatigue Severity Scale. An observational, prospective study. Two hundred and nineteen outpatients: 59.5% had mild, 17% moderate and 23.5% severe disease severity; 83% received immunomodulatory treatment. Both questionnaires were administered at inclusion, and at 12 and 24 months. Analyses of internal consistency, item-total correlation, factor analysis and tests of correlations were performed. The instrument was completed by 97% of subjects. Internal consistency was satisfactory in the dimensions Lack of energy, Lack of motivation and Sleepiness, but not in Physical exertion and Physical discomfort. Factor analysis revealed that all but 3 items (2 in Physical exertion, 1 in Physical discomfort) loaded satisfactorily in 5 dimensions. Correlations between the dimensions and the Fatigue Severity Scale were low, except for a moderate correlation found for Lack of energy. The dimensions Lack of energy, Lack of motivation and Sleepiness appear applicable for use in people with multiple sclerosis. Further development of the physical dimensions and studies on the instrument's capacity to measure changes are needed.Journal of rehabilitation medicine: official journal of the UEMS European Board of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine 11/2008; 40(9):737-43. · 1.88 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Fatigue is one of the most common and most disabling symptoms of multiple sclerosis (MS). Although numerous studies have tried to reveal it, no definite pathogenesis factor behind this fatigue has been identified. Fatigue may be directly related to the disease mechanisms (primary fatigue) or may be secondary to non-disease-specific factors. Primary fatigue may be the result of inflammation, demyelination, or axonal loss. A suggested functional cortical reorganization may result in a higher energy demand in certain brain areas, culminating in an increase of fatigue perception. Higher levels of some immune markers were found in patients with MS-related fatigue, whereas other studies rejected this hypothesis. There may be a disturbance in the neuroendocrine system related to fatigue, but it is not clear whether this is either the result of the interaction with immune activation or the trigger of this process. Fatigue may be secondary to sleep problems, which are frequently present in MS and in their turn result from urinary problems, spasms, pain, or anxiety. Pharmacologic treatment of MS (symptoms) may also provoke fatigue. The evidence for reduced activity as a cause of secondary fatigue in MS is inconsistent. Psychological functioning may at least play a role in the persistence of fatigue. Research did not reach consensus about the association of fatigue with clinical or demographic variables, such as age, gender, disability, type of MS, education level, and disease duration. In conclusion, it is more likely to explain fatigue from a multifactor perspective than to ascribe it to one mechanism. The current evidence on the pathogenesis of primary and secondary fatigue in MS is limited by inconsistency in defining specific aspects of the concept fatigue, by the lack of appropriate assessment tools, and by the use of heterogeneous samples. Future research should overcome these limitations and also include longitudinal designs.Neurorehabilitation and neural repair 22(1):91-100. · 4.49 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To analyze the relation between different risk factors and excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) and fatigue in women from a general-population sample. Cross-sectional population study. The municipality of Uppsala, Sweden. Five thousand five hundred eight women (response rate 73.3%) aged 20 to 60 years. EDS, fatigue, and potential risk factors were assessed in a self-administered questionnaire. Risk factors for EDS and fatigue were analyzed using a multiple logistic regression model. In the whole population, 16.1% of the women reported EDS and 14.3% fatigue. The risk of having EDS and fatigue decreased with increasing age: adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for EDS and fatigue were 0.73 (0.66-0.88) and 0.86 (0.77-0.96) per 10 years, respectively. The combination of anxiety and depression was highly related to both EDS and fatigue (4.51 [3.51-5.79] and 7.00 [5.39-9.10], respectively). Insomnia, somatic disease, snoring, being overweight, and being on sick leave were also independently related to both conditions, whereas lifestyle factors, such as physical inactivity and smoking, were related to fatigue but not to EDS. Having children did not influence the risk of either EDS or fatigue. Psychological distress, insomnia, and somatic disease are the most important conditions in women reporting daytime sleepiness and fatigue. Because 1 in 5 (21%) of the women in this study reported sleepiness, fatigue, or both, interventions that improve psychiatric health and reduce insomnia are important in improving the quality of life in women with these sleep symptoms.Sleep 07/2006; 29(6):751-7. · 5.05 Impact Factor