Control of the expression of inflammatory response genes.
ABSTRACT The expression of genes involved in the inflammatory response is controlled both transcriptionally and post-transcriptionally. Primary inflammatory stimuli, such as microbial products and the cytokines interleukin-1 (IL-1) and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha), act through receptors of either the Toll and IL-1 receptor (TIR) family or the TNF receptor family. These cause changes in gene expression by activating four major intracellular signalling pathways that are cascades of protein kinases: namely the three mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways, and the pathway leading to activation of the transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B (NF kappa B). The pathways directly activate and induce the expression of a limited set of transcription factors which promote the transcription of inflammatory response genes. Many of the mRNAs are unstable, and are stabilized by the p38 MAPK pathway. Instability is mediated by clusters of the AUUUA motif in the 3' untranslated regions of the mRNAs. Control of mRNA stability provides a means of increasing the amplitude of a response and allows rapid adjustment of mRNA levels. Not all mRNAs stabilized by p38 contain AUUUA clusters; for example, matrix metalloproteinase-1 and -3 mRNAs lack these clusters, but are stabilized. Inflammatory gene expression is inhibited by glucocorticoids. These suppress MAPK signalling by inducing a MAPK phosphatase. This may be a significant mechanism additional to that by which the glucocorticoid receptor interferes with transcription factors.
Article: Posttranslational regulation of tristetraprolin subcellular localization and protein stability by p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathways.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway, acting through the downstream kinase MK2, regulates the stability of many proinflammatory mRNAs that contain adenosine/uridine-rich elements (AREs). It is thought to do this by modulating the expression or activity of ARE-binding proteins that regulate mRNA turnover. MK2 phosphorylates the ARE-binding and mRNA-destabilizing protein tristetraprolin (TTP) at serines 52 and 178. Here we show that the p38 MAPK pathway regulates the subcellular localization and stability of TTP protein. A p38 MAPK inhibitor causes rapid dephosphorylation of TTP, relocalization from the cytoplasm to the nucleus, and degradation by the 20S/26S proteasome. Hence, continuous activity of the p38 MAPK pathway is required to maintain the phosphorylation status, cytoplasmic localization, and stability of TTP protein. The regulation of both subcellular localization and protein stability is dependent on MK2 and on the integrity of serines 52 and 178. Furthermore, the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway synergizes with the p38 MAPK pathway to regulate both stability and localization of TTP. This effect is independent of kinases that are known to be synergistically activated by ERK and p38 MAPK. We present a model for the actions of TTP and the p38 MAPK pathway during distinct phases of the inflammatory response.Molecular and Cellular Biology 04/2006; 26(6):2408-18. · 5.53 Impact Factor
Article: In silico simulation of corticosteroids effect on an NFkB- dependent physicochemical model of systemic inflammation.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: During the onset of an inflammatory response signaling pathways are activated for "translating" extracellular signals into intracellular responses converging to the activation of nuclear factor (NF)-kB, a central transcription factor in driving the inflammatory response. An inadequate control of its transcriptional activity is associated with the culmination of a hyper-inflammatory response making it a desired therapeutic target. Predicated upon the nature of the response, a systems level analysis might provide rational leads for the development of strategies that promote the resolution of the response. A physicochemical host response model is proposed to integrate biological information in the form of kinetic rules and signaling cascades with pharmacokinetic models of drug action for the modulation of the response. The unifying hypothesis is that the response is triggered by the activation of the NFkB signaling module and corticosteroids serve as a template for assessing anti-inflammatory strategies. The proposed in silico model is evaluated through its ability to predict and modulate uncontrolled responses. The pre-exposure of the system to hypercortisolemia, i.e. 6 hr before or simultaneously with the infectious challenge "reprograms" the dynamics of the host towards a balanced inflammatory response. However, if such an intervention occurs long before the inflammatory insult a symptomatic effect is observed instead of a protective relief while a steroid infusion after inducing inflammation requires much higher drug doses. We propose a reversed engineered inflammation model that seeks to describe how the system responds to a multitude of external signals. Timing of intervention and dosage regimes appears to be key determinants for the protective or symptomatic effect of exogenous corticosteroids. Such results lie in qualitative agreement with in vivo human studies exposed both to LPS and corticosteroids under various time intervals thus improving our understanding of how interacting modules generate a behavior.PLoS ONE 02/2009; 4(3):e4706. · 4.09 Impact Factor
Article: Targeting the hemoglobin scavenger receptor CD163 in macrophages highly increases the anti-inflammatory potency of dexamethasone.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Synthetic glucocorticoids are potent anti-inflammatory drugs but serious side effects such as bone mobilization, muscle mass loss, immunosuppression, and metabolic alterations make glucocorticoid therapy a difficult balance. The therapeutic anti-inflammatory effect of glucocorticoids relies largely on the suppressed release of tumor-necrosis factor-α and other cytokines by macrophages at the sites of inflammation. We have now developed a new biodegradable anti-CD163 antibody-drug conjugate that specifically targets the glucocorticoid, dexamethasone to the hemoglobin scavenger receptor CD163 in macrophages. The conjugate, that in average contains four dexamethasone molecules per antibody, exhibits retained high functional affinity for CD163. In vitro studies in rat macrophages and in vivo studies of Lewis rats showed a strong anti-inflammatory effect of the conjugate measured as reduced lipopolysaccharide-induced secretion of tumor-necrosis factor-α. The in vivo potency of conjugated dexamethasone was about 50-fold that of nonconjugated dexamethasone. In contrast to a strong systemic effect of nonconjugated dexamethasone, the equipotent dose of the conjugate had no such effect, measured as thymus lymphocytes apoptosis, body weight loss, and suppression of endogenous cortisol levels. In conclusion, the study shows antibody-drug conjugates as a future approach in anti-inflammatory macrophage-directed therapy. Furthermore, the data demonstrate CD163 as an excellent macrophage target for anti-inflammatory drug delivery.Molecular Therapy 05/2012; 20(8):1550-8. · 6.87 Impact Factor