Control of the expression of inflammatory response genes.
ABSTRACT The expression of genes involved in the inflammatory response is controlled both transcriptionally and post-transcriptionally. Primary inflammatory stimuli, such as microbial products and the cytokines interleukin-1 (IL-1) and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha), act through receptors of either the Toll and IL-1 receptor (TIR) family or the TNF receptor family. These cause changes in gene expression by activating four major intracellular signalling pathways that are cascades of protein kinases: namely the three mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways, and the pathway leading to activation of the transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B (NF kappa B). The pathways directly activate and induce the expression of a limited set of transcription factors which promote the transcription of inflammatory response genes. Many of the mRNAs are unstable, and are stabilized by the p38 MAPK pathway. Instability is mediated by clusters of the AUUUA motif in the 3' untranslated regions of the mRNAs. Control of mRNA stability provides a means of increasing the amplitude of a response and allows rapid adjustment of mRNA levels. Not all mRNAs stabilized by p38 contain AUUUA clusters; for example, matrix metalloproteinase-1 and -3 mRNAs lack these clusters, but are stabilized. Inflammatory gene expression is inhibited by glucocorticoids. These suppress MAPK signalling by inducing a MAPK phosphatase. This may be a significant mechanism additional to that by which the glucocorticoid receptor interferes with transcription factors.
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ABSTRACT: Decay accelerating factor (DAF), a complement-regulatory protein, protects cells from bystander complement-mediated lysis and negatively regulates T cells. Reduced expression of DAF occurs in several systemic autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus, and DAF deficiency exacerbates disease in several autoimmune models, including murine mercury-induced autoimmunity (mHgIA). Daf1, located within Hmr1, a chromosome 1 locus associated in DBA/2 mice with resistance to mHgIA, could be a candidate. Here we show that reduced Daf1 transcription in lupus-prone mice was not associated with a reduction in the Daf1 transcription factor SP1. Studies of NZB mice congenic for the mHgIA-resistant DBA/2 Hmr1 locus suggested that Daf1 expression was controlled by the host genome and not the Hmr1 locus. A unique pentanucleotide repeat variant in the second intron of Daf1 in DBA/2 mice was identified and shown in F2 intercrosses to be associated with less severe disease; however, analysis of Hmr1 congenics indicated that this most likely reflected the presence of autoimmunity-predisposing genetic variants within the Hmr1 locus or that Daf1 expression is mediated by the tandem repeat in epistasis with other genetic variants present in autoimmune-prone mice. These studies argue that the effect of DAF on autoimmunity is complex and may require multiple genetic elements.Autoimmune diseases. 01/2014; 2014:260613.
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ABSTRACT: Flow cytometric analysis of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) signaling cascade is optimally achieved by methanol permeabilization protocols. Such protocols suffer from the difficulties to accurately detect intracellular cytokines and surface epitopes of infrequent cell subpopulations, which are removed by methanol. To overcome these limitations, we have modified methanol-based phosphoflow protocols using several commercially available antibody clones suitable for surface antigens, intracellular cytokines, and p38 MAPK. These included markers of B cells (CD19, CD20, and CD22), T cells (CD3, CD4, and CD8), NK (CD56 and CD7), and dendritic cells (CD11c). We have also tested surface markers of costimulatory molecules, such as CD27. We have successfully determined simultaneous expression of IFN- γ , as well as IL-10, and phosphorylated p38 in cell subsets. The optimized phosphoflow protocol has also been successfully applied in peripheral blood mononuclear cells or purified cell subpopulations from patients with various autoimmune diseases. In conclusion, our refined phosphoflow cytometric approach allows simultaneous detection of p38 MAPK activity and intracellular cytokine expression and could be used as an important tool to study signaling cascades in autoimmunity.Journal of immunology research. 01/2014; 2014:671431.