The protein tyrosine phosphatase alpha modifies insulin secretion in INS-1E cells.
ABSTRACT Increasing evidence indicates a role of insulin signalling for insulin secretion from the pancreatic beta-cells. Therefore, regulators of insulin signalling, like protein tyrosine phosphatases, could also have an impact on insulin secretion. Here, we investigated a possible role of the negative regulator protein tyrosine phosphatase alpha (PTP alpha) for insulin secretion. RT-PCR analysis confirmed that both splice variants of the extracellular domain of PTP alpha that vary by an insert of 9 amino acids are expressed in human islets and insulinoma cells (INS-1E, RIN1046-38). Overexpression of the wild type PTP alpha splice variant containing the 9 amino acids reduced insulin secretion, as did a mutant form unable to bind Grb2 (Tyr798Phe). By contrast, overexpression of a phosphatase inactive mutant improved insulin secretion. These data reveal a functional relevance of PTP alpha for insulin secretion.
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ABSTRACT: Both neurotransmitter release and insulin secretion occur via regulated exocytosis and share a variety of similar regulatory mechanisms. It has been suggested that Src family tyrosine kinases inhibit neurotransmitter release from neuronal cells (H. Ohnishi, S. Yamamori, K. Ono, K. Aoyagi, S. Kondo, and M. Takahashi. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 98: 10930-10935, 2001). Thus the potential role of Src family kinases in the regulation of insulin secretion was investigated in this study. Two structurally different inhibitors of Src family kinases, SU-6656 and PP2, but not the inactive compound, PP3, enhanced Ca2+-induced insulin secretion in both rat pancreatic islets and INS-1 cells in a concentration-dependent and time-dependent manner. Furthermore, Src family kinase-mediated insulin secretion appears to be dependent on elevated intracellular Ca2+ and independent of glucose metabolism, the ATP-dependent K+ channel, adenylyl cyclase, classical PKC isoforms, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, and insulin synthesis. The sites of action for Src family kinases seem to be distal to the elevation of intracellular Ca2+ level. These results indicate that one or more Src family tyrosine kinases exert a tonic inhibitory role on Ca2+-dependent insulin secretion.AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism 04/2007; 292(3):E845-52. · 4.51 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: One mechanism of eukaryotic signaling is protein phosphorylation by protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs). Here we have identified the PTP Receptor-Type IV (PTPR4) family, including one form of PTPalpha and two forms of PTPepsilon (PTPepsilon M and PTPepsilon C) in flounder. The existence of PTPepsilon C has not been reported in non-mammalian animals. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR revealed independent expression patterns and levels of PTPalpha and the two forms of PTPepsilon in various tissues. The sequence of PTPepsilon C was identical to that of PTPepsilon M except for its 5'-terminal regions. Southern blot analysis proved that there existed only one PTPepsilon gene in flounder genome, indicating that the two isoforms of PTPepsilon might have been derived from alternative splicing of the single gene. Phylogenetic analysis of PTP domain D2 and part of D1 of PTPR4 showed that flounder was first joint with other teleost fish and then tetrapods, and also provided evidence that the gene duplication from the ancestor gene to PTPalpha and PTPepsilon occurred before the divergence of Gnathastomata and Agnatha. These results showed that the functional evolution of protein phosphorylation is promoted by not only genome duplication, but also elaborate regulation of gene expression.Genes & Genetic Systems 05/2008; 83(2):189-97. · 1.13 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This study was undertaken to identify genetic polymorphisms that are associated with the risk of an elevated fasting glucose (FG) level using genome-wide analyses. We explored a quantitative trait locus (QTL) for FG level in a genome-wide study from a Korean twin-family cohort (the Healthy Twin Study) using a combined linkage and family-based association analysis approach. We investigated 1,754 individuals, which included 432 families and 219 pairs of monozygotic twins. Regions of chromosomes 2q23.3-2q31.1, 15q26.1-15q26.3, 16p12.1, and 20p13-20p12.2, were found to show evidence of linkage with FG level, and several markers in these regions were found to be significantly associated with FG level using family-based or general association tests. In particular, a single-nucleotide polymorphism (rs6138953) on the PTPRA gene in the 20p13 region (combined P = 1.8 × 10(-6)) was found to be associated with FG level, and the PRKCB1 gene (in 16p12.1) to be possibly associated with FG level. In conclusion, multiple regions of chromosomes 2q23.3-2q31.1, 15q26.1-15q26.3, 16p12.1, and 20p13-20p12.2 are associated with FG level in our Korean twin-family cohort. The combined approach of genome-wide linkage and family-based association analysis is useful to identify novel or known genetic regions concerning FG level in a family cohort study.Journal of Korean medical science 03/2013; 28(3):415-23. · 0.84 Impact Factor