The protein tyrosine phosphatase alpha modifies insulin secretion in INS-1E cells.
ABSTRACT Increasing evidence indicates a role of insulin signalling for insulin secretion from the pancreatic beta-cells. Therefore, regulators of insulin signalling, like protein tyrosine phosphatases, could also have an impact on insulin secretion. Here, we investigated a possible role of the negative regulator protein tyrosine phosphatase alpha (PTP alpha) for insulin secretion. RT-PCR analysis confirmed that both splice variants of the extracellular domain of PTP alpha that vary by an insert of 9 amino acids are expressed in human islets and insulinoma cells (INS-1E, RIN1046-38). Overexpression of the wild type PTP alpha splice variant containing the 9 amino acids reduced insulin secretion, as did a mutant form unable to bind Grb2 (Tyr798Phe). By contrast, overexpression of a phosphatase inactive mutant improved insulin secretion. These data reveal a functional relevance of PTP alpha for insulin secretion.
- SourceAvailable from: publications.ki.se
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Genetic predisposition and environmental influences insidiously converge to cause glucose intolerance and hyperglycemia. Beta-cell compensates by secreting more insulin and when it fails, overt diabetes mellitus ensues. The need to understand the mechanisms involved in insulin secretion cannot be stressed enough. Phosphorylation of proteins plays an important role in regulating insulin secretion. In order to understand how a particular cellular process is regulated by protein phosphorylation the nature of the protein kinases and protein phosphatases involved and the mechanisms that determine when and where these enzymes are active should be investigated. While the actions of protein kinases have been intensely studied within the beta-cell, less emphasis has been placed on protein phosphatases even though they play an important regulatory role. This review focuses on the importance of protein phosphatase 2A in insulin secretion. Most of the present knowledge on protein phosphatase 2A originates from protein phosphatase inhibitor studies on islets and beta-cell lines. The ability of protein phosphatase 2A to change its activity in the presence of glucose and inhibitors provides clues to its role in regulating insulin secretion. An aggressive approach to elucidate the substrates and mechanisms of action of protein phosphatases is crucial to the understanding of phosphorylation events within the beta-cell. Characterizing protein phosphatase 2A within the beta-cell will certainly help us in understanding the mechanisms involved in insulin secretion and provide valuable information for drug development.JOP: Journal of the pancreas 08/2005; 6(4):303-15.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The extracellular domains of receptor-type protein-tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) contain a diverse range of protein modules like fibronectin- or immunoglobulin-like structures. These are frequently expressed in a tissue- and development specific manner as splice variants. The extracellular domain of PTPalpha is rather short and heavily glycosylated. Two splice variants are known, which it differs by an exon encoding nine amino acids within the extracellular domain. We have analyzed the expression pattern of both variants and found that the smaller form is ubiquitously expressed while the larger form was found at an increased level only in brain, some skeletal muscle and differentiating cells like granule neurons, adipocytes and myotubes. The phosphatase activity of both forms was similar when tested in vitro using para-nitrophenylphosphate as a substrate and in a transient expression system with the substrates c-Fyn or c-Src. In a quantitative focus formation assay the capability of the larger form to activate Src-dependent focus formation in intact cells was increased more than twofold whereas the capability to dephosphorylate the insulin receptor in a BHK cell system was similar. We conclude that the two splice variants of PTPalpha are expressed differentially and regulate c-Src activity in different ways.Genes to Cells 02/2007; 12(1):63-73. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2443.2006.01034.x · 2.86 Impact Factor