Identification and Characterization of Nonmuscle Myosin II-C, a New Member of the Myosin II Family
ABSTRACT A previously unrecognized nonmuscle myosin II heavy chain (NMHC II), which constitutes a distinct branch of the nonmuscle/smooth muscle myosin II family, has recently been revealed in genome data bases. We characterized the biochemical properties and expression patterns of this myosin. Using nucleotide probes and affinity-purified antibodies, we found that the distribution of NMHC II-C mRNA and protein (MYH14) is widespread in human and mouse organs but is quantitatively and qualitatively distinct from NMHC II-A and II-B. In contrast to NMHC II-A and II-B, the mRNA level in human fetal tissues is substantially lower than in adult tissues. Immunofluorescence microscopy showed distinct patterns of expression for all three NMHC isoforms. NMHC II-C contains an alternatively spliced exon of 24 nucleotides in loop I at a location analogous to where a spliced exon appears in NMHC II-B and in the smooth muscle myosin heavy chain. However, unlike neuron-specific expression of the NMHC II-B insert, the NMHC II-C inserted isoform has widespread tissue distribution. Baculovirus expression of noninserted and inserted NMHC II-C heavy meromyosin (HMM II-C/HMM II-C1) resulted in significant quantities of expressed protein (mg of protein) for HMM II-C1 but not for HMM II-C. Functional characterization of HMM II-C1 by actin-activated MgATPase activity demonstrated a V(max) of 0.55 + 0.18 s(-1), which was half-maximally activated at an actin concentration of 16.5 + 7.2 microm. HMM II-C1 translocated actin filaments at a rate of 0.05 + 0.011 microm/s in the absence of tropomyosin and at 0.072 + 0.019 microm/s in the presence of tropomyosin in an in vitro motility assay.
SourceAvailable from: Srishti Upasana Sahu[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Cell shape changes that mediate midbrain-hindbrain boundary morphogenesis.•Non-muscle myosin II proteins differentially regulate cell shape changes.•Cell length is regulated by non-muscle myosin IIA.•Cell width is regulated by non-muscle myosin IIB.Developmental Biology 10/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.ydbio.2014.10.017 · 3.64 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The interplay between nonmuscle myosins-2 and filamentous actin results in cytoplasmic contractility which is essential for eukaryotic life. Concomitantly, there is tremendous interest in elucidating the physiological function and temporal localization of nonmuscle myosin-2 in cells. A commonly used method to study the function and localization of nonmuscle myosin-2 is to overexpress a fluorescent protein (FP)-tagged version of the regulatory light chain (RLC) which binds to the myosin-2 heavy chain by mass action. Caveats about this approach include findings from recent studies indicating that the RLC does not bind exclusively to the nonmuscle myosin-2 heavy chain. Rather, it can also associate with the myosin heavy chains of several other classes as well as other targets than myosin. In addition, the presence of the FP moiety may compromise myosin's enzymatic and mechanical performance. This and other factors to be discussed in this commentary raise questions about the possible complications in using FP-RLC as a marker for the dynamic localization and regulatory aspects of nonmuscle myosin-2 motor functions in cell biological experiments. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.Cytoskeleton 02/2015; DOI:10.1002/cm.21212 · 2.87 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Nonmuscle myosin II (NM II) is the name given to the multi-subunit protein product of three genes encoding different nonmuscle myosin heavy chains including NM II-A, NM II-B, and NM II-C. Blebbistatin is a small molecule that has been shown to be a relatively specific inhibitor of NM II. Blocking the function of NM II by blebbistatin induces zebrafish embryo cardia bifida at a dose-dependent manner. In situ hybridization analysis with ventricular marker ventricular myosin heavy chain (vmhc) and atrial marker atrial myosin heavy chain (amhc) showed each of the heart contained both distinct atria and ventricle. However, the cardia bifida embryos had highly variable distance between two separate ventricles. We also provided evidence that time window from 12 to 20 h post fertilization (hpf) is necessary and sufficient for cardia bifida formation caused by blebbistatin treatment. Expression of spinster homolog 2 (spns2) was decreased in blebbistatin-treated embryos, suggesting the cardia bifida phenotype caused by NM II inhibition was relevant to precardiac mesoderm migration defects. Through in situ hybridization analysis, we showed that foxa1 was expressed in endoderm of blebbistatin-treated embryos at 24-hpf stage, suggesting the endoderm formation is normal in cardia bifida embryos caused by blebbistatin treatment. In addition, we demonstrated that blebbistatin treatment resulted in morphology alteration of zebrafish cardiomyocytes in vivo and neonatal mouse cardiomyocytes in vitro.In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology - Animal 11/2014; DOI:10.1007/s11626-014-9836-0 · 1.00 Impact Factor