Chronic pulmonary disease in rural women exposed to biomass fumes
ABSTRACT Biomass (organic) fuels cause indoor air pollution when used inside dwellings. We evaluated the frequencies of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and chronic bronchitis (CB) among rural women using biomass fuels for heating and cooking and compared them to women living in urban areas where such fuels are not used.
From electoral lists we randomly selected 242 women living in rural areas near Kayseri, Turkey and 102 women living in apartments in the city having central heating and cooking with fuels other than biomass ones. Using a translated version of the American Thoracic Society questionnaire, with additional questions from the British Medical Research Council questionnaire, trained interviewers conducted personal interviews. They also collected information on fuels used for cooking and heating. All study subjects underwent a physical examination and measurement of pulmonary function.
We found that rural women were younger than urban women (mean age [and standard deviation], 40.5 [14.1] yr v. 43.6 [11.9] yr). More urban than rural women were current (14.7% v. 4.5%, p < 0.001) or past (11.8% v. 1.2%, p < 0.001) smokers. CB was more prevalent among rural women than urban women (20.7% v. 10.8%, p < 0.03). Similarly, COPD was more prevalent in rural women (12.4% v. 3.9%, p < 0.05). Although the pulmonary function tests were within normal limits, FEV, values in rural women were found to be relatively low compared with those of urban women (p < 0.05).
Rural women exposed to biomass fumes are more likely to suffer from CB and COPD than urban women even though the prevalence of smoking is higher among the latter group.
- SourceAvailable from: onlinelibrary.wiley.com
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
- "Smoking levels have increased worldwide except in Europe and the Americas (Chan-Yeung et al. 2004) which may affect COPD prevalence worldwide. There is a high COPD prevalence due to indoor air pollution in middle income countries, particularly among women (Kiraz et al. 2003) which indicates that the COPD burden in Africa may be largely due to equivalent indoor air pollution in African homes (Norman et al. 2007). Rising smoking rates and high levels of tuberculosis infection (Ehrlich et al. 2004) may also increase the disease prevalence. "
ABSTRACT: To ascertain the known burden of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in Africa and of spirometry use to indicate the possibility of further unpublished data becoming shortly available. Literature review. Screening of 132 articles yielded 22 relevant articles, of which only six used spirometry based data. A total of 106 physicians in 34 countries were contacted and only 23 reported satisfactory use and availability of spirometry. Current estimates of COPD burden in Africa are based on an unreliably small dataset. Acquisition of further data will require substantial investment in lung function equipment and training.Tropical Medicine & International Health 09/2009; 14(8):840-8. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-3156.2009.02308.x · 2.30 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
- "Radon, fumes from cooking fuels and heating stoves and SHS are three lung carcinogens to which women are exposed by virtue of spending more time in the home, and are a particular threat in developing countries (Siegfried, 2001). For example , studies have found that women were more exposed to biomass (animal manure, peat, etc) in both China (Ramirez-Venegas, Sansores et al. 2006; Sin, Greaves et al. 2007), and Turkey (Behera and Jindal, 1991; Kiraz, Kart et al. 2003; Wang, Zhang et al. 2005) resulting in respiratory symptoms and diseases. In developed countries, however, these risks can be perceived to be either minimal, or not necessarily gender related (Ernster, 1996). "
ABSTRACT: Chronic heart and respiratory diseases are two of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality affecting women. Patterns of and disparities in chronic diseases between sub-populations of women suggest that there are social as well as individual level factors which enhance or impede the prevention or development of chronic respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. By examining the sex, gender and diversity based dimensions of women's lung and heart health and how these overlap with environmental factors we extend analysis of preventive health beyond the individual level. We demonstrate how biological, environmental and social factors interact and operate in women's lives, structuring their opportunities for health and abilities to prevent or manage chronic cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. This commentary is based on the findings from two evidence reviews, one conducted on women's heart health, and another on women's lung health. Additional literature was also reviewed which assessed the relationship between environmental factors and chronic heart and lung diseases. This paper explores how obesogenic environments, exposure to tobacco smoke, and the experience of living in deprived areas can affect women's heart and respiratory health. We discuss the barriers which impede women's ability to engage in physical activity, consume healthy foods, or avoid smoking, tobacco smoke, and other airborne contaminants. Sex, gender and diversity clearly interact with environmental factors and shape women's promotion of health and prevention of chronic respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. The environments women live in structure their opportunities for health, and women navigate these environments in unique ways based on gender, socioeconomic status, race/ethnicity and other social factors. Future research, policy and programs relating to the prevention of chronic disease need to move beyond linear individually-oriented models and address these complexities by developing frameworks and interventions which improve environmental conditions for all groups of women. Indeed, in order to improve women's health, broad social and economic policies and initiatives are required to eliminate negative environmental impacts on women's opportunities for health.Environmental Health Insights 01/2009; 2:127-35.
Article: Volume (Fascicolo) Anno : Pagine