Chronic pulmonary disease in rural women exposed to biomass fumes.
ABSTRACT Biomass (organic) fuels cause indoor air pollution when used inside dwellings. We evaluated the frequencies of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and chronic bronchitis (CB) among rural women using biomass fuels for heating and cooking and compared them to women living in urban areas where such fuels are not used.
From electoral lists we randomly selected 242 women living in rural areas near Kayseri, Turkey and 102 women living in apartments in the city having central heating and cooking with fuels other than biomass ones. Using a translated version of the American Thoracic Society questionnaire, with additional questions from the British Medical Research Council questionnaire, trained interviewers conducted personal interviews. They also collected information on fuels used for cooking and heating. All study subjects underwent a physical examination and measurement of pulmonary function.
We found that rural women were younger than urban women (mean age [and standard deviation], 40.5 [14.1] yr v. 43.6 [11.9] yr). More urban than rural women were current (14.7% v. 4.5%, p < 0.001) or past (11.8% v. 1.2%, p < 0.001) smokers. CB was more prevalent among rural women than urban women (20.7% v. 10.8%, p < 0.03). Similarly, COPD was more prevalent in rural women (12.4% v. 3.9%, p < 0.05). Although the pulmonary function tests were within normal limits, FEV, values in rural women were found to be relatively low compared with those of urban women (p < 0.05).
Rural women exposed to biomass fumes are more likely to suffer from CB and COPD than urban women even though the prevalence of smoking is higher among the latter group.
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ABSTRACT: Etiology, prevalence and types COPD is a major cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide and poses an increasing global healthcare problem (1). The definition of COPD recognises the "abnormal", exaggerated or amplified inflammatory response in the lung and systemically to cigarette smoking and noxious pollutions (2). The pattern of inflammation involves recruitment of lymphocytes, macrophages and neutrophils, as well as activation and damage to structural cells following the release of inflammatory chemokines and cytokines (2–5). In the Western world, the major driver of disease is cigarette smoke (CS) which is a complex mixture of organic chemicals, heavy metals and reactive oxygen species (ROS) (6–11). Importantly, Sopori (12) highlighted that chronic inhalation of cigarette smoke can modulate both innate and adaptive immune responses. Moreover, it has been speculated that many of the health consequences of chronic cigarette smoking might be due to its adverse effects on the immune system (13). Many inflammatory cells and their mediators, both of the innate and adaptive immune system, participate in the inflammatory processing of COPD. Macrophages, neutrophils and CD8+ T cells are the cells usually considered the prime effector cells in pathogenesis of COPD (14), but recently DCs have been suggested to be a potentially important new player/orchestrator of the pattern of inflammation that characterizes COPD (15, 16). The Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) and American Thoracic Society (ATS)/European Respiratory Society (ERS) COPD guidelines have defined COPD as a preventable and treatable disease characterized by airflow limitation that is partially reversible (17, 18). It is likely that CS-induced inflammation is responsible, at least in part, for this airflow limitation. Multiple intracellular signaling events occur by CS, which ultimately leads to the synthesis and release of TANAFFOSTanaffos 09/2012; 11(4).
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ABSTRACT: Background Nearly 3 billion people live without electricity today. This energy poverty means that they have to resort to biomass fuels for their household energy needs. When burned, these fuels release a mixture of toxic chemicals in their smoke, which is often over twenty times greater than World Health Organization (WHO) and Environmental Protection Agency recommended guideline limits. Aim This review details factors that contribute to indoor air pollution, its effects on health, and discusses corrective measures to consider when planning intervention strategies to stem the high morbidity and mortality trend. Methods The term developing countries is defined using the 2008 United Nations Conferences on Trade and Development Handbook. PubMed, Google Scholar and Science Direct databases from 1990 to 2011 were searched using the key terms: indoor air pollution, biomass fuel, particulate matter, health risks, and developing countries. Bibliographies of all relevant articles were also screened to find further eligible articles. Inclusion criteria were peer-reviewed articles and technical reports from global health organizations such as the WHO and United Nations Development Program. Exclusion criteria were articles focused on modern energy, developed countries, and non-English publications. Results The review discusses the extent of indoor air pollution related to use of biomass for cooking and assesses its impact on various health and social problems, including lung diseases, adverse pregnancy outcomes and human development, especially in vulnerable populations. It also offers strategies to mitigate problems related to indoor air pollution. Conclusions Biomass fuel is a major cause of indoor air pollution and is a significant health hazard in developing countries. A thorough understanding of the connection between choice of fuel for household needs and health impact of long-term exposure to pollutants from smoke generated during use of biomass for cooking is required so that appropriate intervention strategies and policies can be established to protect vulnerable populations.Journal of Public Health 12/2012; 20(6). DOI:10.1007/s10389-012-0511-1 · 2.06 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) mortality and morbidity have increased significantly worldwide in recent decades. Although cigarette smoke is still considered the main risk factor for the development of the disease, estimates suggest that between 25% and 33% of COPD patients are non-smokers. Among the factors that may increase the risk of developing COPD, biomass smoke has been proposed as one of the most important, affecting especially women and children in developing countries.