Distinct costimulation dependent and independent autoreactive T-cell clones in primary biliary cirrhosis.
ABSTRACT Previous work has suggested that CD4+ CD28- or costimulation-independent T cells are increased in autoimmune diseases. In this study, we compared frequency and qualitative characteristics of autoreactive costimulation-independent or CD4+ CD28- T cells in primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) by taking advantage of the well-defined immunodominant autoepitope of the E2 component of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDC-E2).
We determined the frequency of costimulation-independent autoreactive T cells that respond to PDC-E2 163-176 and the frequency of CD4+ CD28- T cells. Finally, we determined the role of biliary epithelial cells (BEC) as both an antigen-presenting cell or, alternatively, as a target cell for T-cell-mediated cytotoxicity.
The precursor frequency of costimulation-independent CD4+ T cells that respond to PDC-E2 163-176 and the frequency of CD4+ CD28- T cells were dramatically elevated in PBC. Furthermore, 2 types of T-cell clones that respond to PDC-E2 163-176 emerged from this study. One type was costimulation dependent and the other costimulation independent. Both types of clones lyse BEC in a similar effector target (E/T) ratio distribution. However, BEC did not help the proliferation of any T-cell clones. Furthermore, costimulation-independent T-cell clones do not become anergic by BEC.
In PBC, costimulation-independent autoreactive T cells, which do not become anergic, increase and maintain the autoimmune response. In controls, although autoantigens are expressed on BEC and autoantigen-reactive T cells exist around BEC, autoantigen-reactive T cells are costimulation dependent and will become anergic and maintain peripheral tolerance.
- SourceAvailable from: Carlo E Pucillo[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Antigen-specific T cell activation requires the engagement of the T cell receptor (TCR) with antigen as well as the engagement of appropriate costimulatory molecules. The most extensively characterized pathway of costimulation has been that involving the interaction of CD28 and CTLA4 on the T cell with B7 (now termed B7-1) on antigen presenting cells. Recently, B7-2 a second costimulatory ligand for CTLA4, was described, demonstrating the potential complexity of costimulatory interactions. This report examines and compares the expression and function of B7-1 and B7-2. Overall these results indicate that (a) B7-1 and B7-2 can be expressed by multiple cell types, including B cells, T cells, macrophages, and dendritic cells, all of which are therefore candidate populations for delivering costimulatory signals mediated by these molecules; (b) stimulating B cells with either LPS or anti-IgD-dextran induced expression of both B7-1 and B7-2, and peak expression of both costimulatory molecules occurred after 18-42 h of culture. Expression of B7-2 on these B cell populations was significantly higher than expression of B7-1 at all times assayed after stimulation; (c) blocking of B7-2 costimulatory activity inhibited TCR-dependent T cell proliferation and cytokine production, without affecting early consequences of TCR signaling such as induction of CD69 or interleukin 2 receptor alpha (IL-2R alpha); and (d) expression of B7-1 and of B7-2 can be regulated by a variety of stimuli. Moreover, expression of B7-1 and B7-2 can be independently regulated by the same stimulus, providing an additional complexity in the mechanisms available for regulating costimulation and hence immune response.Journal of Experimental Medicine 09/1994; 180(2):631-40. · 13.21 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Graves disease is a common form of human autoimmune thyroiditis. It shares many pathological features and HLA associations with other, less easily studied, organ-specific autoimmune conditions such as insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, and hence it is also a useful model for understanding these other diseases. We have previously shown that thyroid-infiltrating T cells in Graves disease that have been recently activated in vivo specifically recognize autologous thyroid epithelial cells. However, the autoantigens involved were not defined. In this study, we have made use of antigen-independent T-cell cloning techniques to show that at least three different thyroid antigens, three different epitopes on a single antigen, and two HLA class II elements are involved in this recognition process in a single individual. This demonstrates that T cells that are present and activated at the site of a human autoimmune disease may show considerable heterogeneity in their recognition of autoantigen on the target tissue. This contrasts with the limited heterogeneity recently reported in some animal models and has potentially important implications for both our understanding of the autoimmune process in humans and the design of immunotherapies to reverse it.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 09/1991; 88(16):7415-9. · 9.74 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Equal numbers of CD4+ T cells recognizing myelin basic protein (MBP) and proteolipid protein (PLP) are found in the circulation of normal individuals and multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. We hypothesized that if myelin-reactive T cells are critical for the pathogenesis of MS, they would exist in a different state of activation as compared with myelin-reactive T cells cloned from the blood of normal individuals. This was investigated in a total of 62 subjects with definitive MS. While there were no differences in the frequencies of MBP- and PLP-reactive T cells after primary antigen stimulation, the frequency of MBP or PLP but not tetanus toxoid-reactive T cells generated after primary recombinant interleukin (rIL-2) stimulation was significantly higher in MS patients as compared with control individuals. Primary rIL-2-stimulated MBP-reactive T cell lines were CD4+ and recognized MBP epitopes 84-102 and 143-168 similar to MBP-reactive T cell lines generated with primary MBP stimulation. In the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of MS patients, MBP-reactive T cells generated with primary rIL-2 stimulation accounted for 7% of the IL-2-responsive cells, greater than 10-fold higher than paired blood samples, and these T cells also selectively recognized MBP peptides 84-102 and 143-168. In striking contrast, MBP-reactive T cells were not detected in CSF obtained from patients with other neurologic diseases. These results provide definitive in vitro evidence of an absolute difference in the activation state of myelin-reactive T cells in the central nervous system of patients with MS and provide evidence of a pathogenic role of autoreactive T cells in the disease.Journal of Experimental Medicine 04/1994; 179(3):973-84. · 13.21 Impact Factor