P16INK4a is required for hSNF5 chromatin remodeler-induced cellular senescence in malignant rhabdoid tumor cells.
ABSTRACT The hSNF5 chromatin-remodeling factor is a tumor suppressor that is inactivated in malignant rhabdoid tumors (MRTs). A number of studies have shown that hSNF5 re-expression blocks MRT cell proliferation. However, the pathway through which hSNF5 acts remains unknown. To address this question, we generated MRT-derived cell lines in which restoration of hSNF5 expression leads to an accumulation in G(0)/G(1), induces cellular senescence and increased apoptosis. Following hSNF5 expression, we observed transcriptional activation of the tumor suppressor p16(INK4a) but not of p14(ARF), repression of several cyclins and CD44, a cell surface glycoprotein implicated in metastasis. Chromatin immunoprecipitations indicated that hSNF5 activates p16(INK4a) transcription and CD44 down-regulation by mediating recruitment of the SWI/SNF complex. Thus, hSNF5 acts as a dualistic co-regulator that, depending on the promoter context, can either mediate activation or repression. Three lines of evidence established that p16(INK4a) is an essential effector of hSNF5-induced cell cycle arrest. 1) Overexpression of p16(INK4a) mimics the effect of hSNF5 induction and leads to cellular senescence. 2) Expression of a p16(INK4a)-insensitive form of CDK4 obstructs hSNF5-induced cell cycle arrest. 3) Inhibition of p16(INK4a) activation by siRNA blocks hSNF5-mediated cellular senescence. Collectively, these results indicate that in human MRT cells, the p16(INK4a)/pRb, rather than the p14(ARF)/p53 pathway, mediates hSNF5-induced cellular senescence.
SourceAvailable from: Farzad Jamshidi[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Extraordinary advancements in sequencing technology have made what was once a decade-long multi-institutional endeavor into a methodology with the potential for practical use in a clinical setting. We therefore set out to examine the clinical value of next-generation sequencing by enrolling patients with incurable or ambiguous tumors into the Personalized OncoGenomics initiative at the British Columbia Cancer Agency whereby whole genome and transcriptome analyses of tumor/normal tissue pairs are completed with the ultimate goal of directing therapeutics. First, we established that the sequencing, analysis, and communication with oncologists could be completed in less than 5 weeks. Second, we found that cancer diagnostics is an area that can greatly benefit from the comprehensiveness of a whole genome analysis. Here, we present a scenario in which a metastasized sphenoid mass, which was initially thought of as an undifferentiated squamous cell carcinoma, was rediagnosed as an SMARCB1-negative rhabdoid tumor based on the newly acquired finding of homozygous SMARCB1 deletion. The new diagnosis led to a change in chemotherapy and a complete nodal response in the patient. This study also provides additional insight into the mutational landscape of an adult SMARCB1-negative tumor that has not been explored at a whole genome and transcriptome level.The Oncologist 05/2014; 19(6). DOI:10.1634/theoncologist.2013-0390 · 4.54 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: SWI/SNF complexes utilize BRG1 (also known as SMARCA4) or BRM (also known as SMARCA2) as alternative catalytic subunits with ATPase activity to remodel chromatin. These chromatin-remodeling complexes are required for mammalian development and are mutated in ~20% of all human primary tumors. Yet our knowledge of their tumor-suppressor mechanism is limited. To investigate the role of SWI/SNF complexes in the DNA-damage response (DDR), we used shRNAs to deplete BRG1 and BRM and then exposed these cells to a panel of 6 genotoxic agents. Compared to controls, the shRNA knockdown cells were hypersensitive to certain genotoxic agents that cause double-strand breaks (DSBs) associated with stalled/collapsed replication forks but not to ionizing radiation-induced DSBs that arise independently of DNA replication. These findings were supported by our analysis of DDR kinases, which demonstrated a more prominent role for SWI/SNF in the activation of the ATR-Chk1 pathway than the ATM-Chk2 pathway. Surprisingly, γH2AX induction was attenuated in shRNA knockdown cells exposed to a topoisomerase II inhibitor (etoposide) but not to other genotoxic agents including IR. However, this finding is compatible with recent studies linking SWI/SNF with TOP2A and TOP2BP1. Depletion of BRG1 and BRM did not result in genomic instability in a tumor-derived cell line but did result in nucleoplasmic bridges in normal human fibroblasts. Taken together, these results suggest that SWI/SNF tumor-suppressor activity involves a role in the DDR to attenuate replicative stress and genomic instability. These results may also help to inform the selection of chemotherapeutics for tumors deficient for SWI/SNF function.Oncotarget 12/2014; · 6.63 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Cancer genome sequencing efforts have revealed the novel theme that chromatin modifiers are frequently mutated across a wide spectrum of cancers. Mutations in genes encoding subunits of SWI/SNF (BAF) chromatin remodeling complexes are particularly prevalent, occurring in 20% of all human cancers. As these are typically loss-of-function mutations and not directly therapeutically targetable, central goals have been to elucidate mechanism and identify vulnerabilities created by these mutations. Here, we discuss emerging data that these mutations lead to the formation of aberrant residual SWI/SNF complexes that constitute a specific vulnerability and discuss the potential for exploiting these dependencies in SWI/SNF mutant cancers.Cancer Cell 09/2014; 26(3):309-317. DOI:10.1016/j.ccr.2014.07.018 · 23.89 Impact Factor