Dose-dependent protective effect of coffee, tea, and smoking in Parkinson's disease: a study in ethnic Chinese.
ABSTRACT Few studies have examined the relationship of coffee and tea in Parkinson's disease (PD). The potential protective effect of coffee intake and risk of PD has not been studied in a Chinese population. There is a high prevalence of caffeine takers among Chinese in our population.
We undertook a case control study to examine the relationship between coffee and tea drinking, cigarette smoking, and other enviromental factors and risk of PD among ethnic Chinese in our population.
300 PD and 500 population controls were initially screened. Two hundred case control pairs matched for age, gender, and race were finally included in the analysis. Univariate analysis revealed significant association of PD with coffee drinking (p<0.0005), tea drinking (p=0.019), alcohol drinking (p=0.001), cigarette smoking (p<0.0005), and exposure to heavy metals (p=0.006). Conditional logistic regression analysis demonstrated that amount of coffee drunk (OR 0.787, 95%CI 0.664-0.932, p=0.006), amount of tea drunk (OR 0.724, 95%CI 0.559-0.937, p=0.014), number of cigarettes smoked (OR 0.384, 95%CI 0.204-0.722, p=0.003), history of heavy metal and toxin exposure (OR 11.837, 95%CI 1.075-130.366, p=0.044), and heart disease (OR 5.518, 95%CI 1.377-22.116, p=0.016) to be significant factors associated with PD. One unit of coffee and tea (3 cups/day for 10 years) would lead to a 22% and 28% risk reduction of PD. One unit of cigarette smoke (3 packs/day for 10 years) reduced the risk of PD by 62%.
We demonstrated a dose-dependent protective effect of PD in coffee and tea drinkers and smokers in an ethnic Chinese population. A history of exposure to heavy metals increased the risk of PD, supporting the multifactorial etiologies of the disease.
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ABSTRACT: Few detailed clinico-pathological correlations of Parkinson's disease have been published. The pathological findings in 100 patients diagnosed prospectively by a group of consultant neurologists as having idiopathic Parkinson's disease are reported. Seventy six had nigral Lewy bodies, and in all of these Lewy bodies were also found in the cerebral cortex. In 24 cases without Lewy bodies, diagnoses included progressive supranuclear palsy, multiple system atrophy, Alzheimer's disease, Alzheimer-type pathology, and basal ganglia vascular disease. The retrospective application of recommended diagnostic criteria improved the diagnostic accuracy to 82%. These observations call into question current concepts of Parkinson's disease as a single distinct morbid entity.Journal of Neurology Neurosurgery & Psychiatry 04/1992; 55(3):181-4. · 4.92 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The aetiology of Parkinson's disease remains unknown, although both genetic susceptibility and environmental factors are considered putative contributors to its origin. We performed a case-control study to investigate the association of familial and environmental risk factors with Parkinson's disease (PD). We studied 136 patients with neurologist confirmed PD and 272 age- and sex-matched controls, affected by neurological diseases not related to PD. The risk of developing idiopathic PD associated with the following familial and environmental factors: positive family history of PD, positive family history of essential tremor (ET), age of mother at subject's birth, rural birth, rural living, well water use, farming as an occupation, exposure to pesticides, head tremor, exposure to general anaesthesia and to ionizing radiations, food restriction, concentration camp imprisonment and smoking has been assessed by using univariate and multivariate statistical techniques. In the conditional multiple logistic regression analysis, positive family history of PD (OR 41.7, 95% CI 12.2-142.5, P < 0.0001), positive family history of ET (OR 10.8, 95% CI 2.6-43.7, P < 0.0001), age of mother at subject's birth (OR 2.6, 95% CI 1.4-3.7, P=0.0013), exposure to general anaesthesia (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.3-3.8, P=0.0024), farming as an occupation (OR 7.7, 95% CI 1.4-44.1, P=0.0212) and well water use (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.1-3.6, P=0.0308) exhibited a significant positive association with PD, whereas smoking showed a trend toward an inverse relationship with PD (OR 0.7, 95% CI 0.4-1.1, P < 0.06). We conclude that both familial and environmental factors may contribute to PD aetiology.Acta Neurologica Scandinavica 02/2002; 105(2):77-82. · 2.47 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: An inverse association between cigarette smoking and idiopathic Parkinson's disease has been reported in several retrospective studies, but prospective evidence is available only for men. We assessed the association between the incidence of Parkinson's disease and smoking in two large prospective cohort studies comprising men and women. New cases of Parkinson's disease were identified in the Nurses' Health Study for 1976–1996, and in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study for 1986–1996. Smoking history was assessed at baseline and updated on subsequent biennial questionnaires. In women, the age-adjusted rate ratios (95% confidence intervals) for Parkinson's disease relative to never-smokers were 0.7 (0.5, 1.0) for past smokers, and 0.4 (0.2, 0.7) for current smokers. In men, the age-adjusted rate ratios for Parkinson's disease relative to never-smokers were 0.5 (0.4, 0.7) for past smokers, and 0.3 (0.1, 0.8) for current smokers. In both cohorts, the strength of the association decreased with time since quitting (among past smokers), increased with number of cigarettes per day (among current smokers), and increased with pack-years of smoking. These prospective findings confirm that an inverse association between smoking and the incidence of Parkinson's disease exists in both men and women.Annals of Neurology 11/2001; 50(6):780 - 786. · 11.19 Impact Factor