Isoflavone genistein: photoprotection and clinical implications in dermatology.
ABSTRACT Genistein is a soybean isoflavone with diverse biological activities. It is a potent antioxidant, a specific inhibitor of protein tyrosine kinase, and a phytoestrogen. In recent years, increasing evidence has accumulated that this natural ingredient shows preventative and therapeutic effects for breast and prostate cancers, postmenopausal syndrome, osteoporosis, and cardiovascular diseases in animals and humans. In the past decade we have conducted a series of studies and demonstrated that genistein has significant antiphotocarcinogenic and antiphotoaging effects. Genistein substantially inhibits skin carcinogenesis and cutaneous aging induced by ultraviolet (UV) light in mice, and photodamage in humans. The mechanisms of action involve protection of oxidative and photodynamically damaged DNA, downregulation of UVB-activated signal transduction cascades, and antioxidant activities. In this article, we review the biological activities of genistein, as well as published and unpublished research from our laboratory. In addition, we discuss the potential application of genistein to clinical dermatology.
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ABSTRACT: Among American men, prostate cancer is the most common, non-cutaneous malignancy that accounted for an estimated 241,000 new cases and 34,000 deaths in 2011. Previous studies have suggested that Wnt pathway inhibitory genes are silenced by CpG hypermethylation, and other studies have suggested that genistein can demethylate hypermethylated DNA. Genistein is a soy isoflavone with diverse effects on cellular proliferation, survival, and gene expression that suggest it could be a potential therapeutic agent for prostate cancer. We undertook the present study to investigate the effects of genistein on the epigenome of prostate cancer cells and to discover novel combination approaches of other compounds with genistein that might be of translational utility. Here, we have investigated the effects of genistein on several prostate cancer cell lines, including the ARCaP-E/ARCaP-M model of the epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), to analyze effects on their epigenetic state. In addition, we investigated the effects of combined treatment of genistein with the histone deacetylase inhibitor vorinostat on survival in prostate cancer cells. Using whole genome expression profiling and whole genome methylation profiling, we have determined the genome-wide differences in genetic and epigenetic responses to genistein in prostate cancer cells before and after undergoing the EMT. Also, cells were treated with genistein, vorinostat, and combination treatment, where cell death and cell proliferation was determined. Contrary to earlier reports, genistein did not have an effect on CpG methylation at 20 μM, but it did affect histone H3K9 acetylation and induced increased expression of histone acetyltransferase 1 (HAT1). In addition, genistein also had differential effects on survival and cooperated with the histone deacteylase inhibitor vorinostat to induce cell death and inhibit proliferation. Our results suggest that there are a number of pathways that are affected with genistein and vorinostat treatment such as Wnt, TNF, G2/M DNA damage checkpoint, and androgen signaling pathways. In addition, genistein cooperates with vorinostat to induce cell death in prostate cancer cell lines with a greater effect on early stage prostate cancer.BMC Cancer 04/2012; 12:145. · 3.33 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Skin is constantly exposed to pro-oxidant environmental stress from several sources, including air pollutants, ultraviolet solar light, and chemical oxidants. Reactive oxygen species have been implicated in age-related skin disorders. Dietary bioactive antioxidant compounds, such as polyphenols, have beneficial effects on skin health. The advantage of a nutritional administration route is that blood delivers nutraceutical bioactive compounds continuously to all skin compartments, ie, the epidermis, dermis, and subcutaneous fat. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the topical and systemic effects of a dietary supplement containing resveratrol and procyanidin on age-related alterations to the skin, the skin antioxidant pool, and systemic oxidative stress levels. An instrumental study was performed in 50 subjects (25 treated with supplements and 25 with placebo) to identify clinical features induced by chronoaging or photoaging. Product efficacy was evaluated after 60 days of treatment in terms of in vivo and in situ skin hydration, elasticity, and skin roughness levels, systemic oxidative stress levels by plasmatic derivatives of reactive oxygen metabolites and oxyadsorbent tests, and extent of the skin antioxidant pool. After 60 days of treatment, values for systemic oxidative stress, plasmatic antioxidant capacity, and skin antioxidant power had increased significantly. Additionally, skin moisturization and elasticity had improved, while skin roughness and depth of wrinkles had diminished. Intensity of age spots had significantly decreased, as evidenced by improvement in the individual typological angle. Nutraceutical and pharmacological intervention with a supplement characterized by a specific blend of resveratrol and procyanidin may be a promising strategy to support treatments for the reduction of skin wrinkling, as well as reducing systemic and skin oxidative stress.Clinical, Cosmetic and Investigational Dermatology 01/2012; 5:159-65.
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ABSTRACT: Isoflavones exist in nature predominantly as glucosides such as daidzin or genistin and are rarely found in their corresponding aglycone forms daidzein and genistein. The metabolism and absorption of isoflavones ingested with food is well documented, but little is known about their use as topical photo-protective agents. The aim of this study was to investigate in a comparative analysis the photo-protective effects of isoflavones in both their aglycone and glucoside forms. In human skin fibroblasts irradiated with 60 mJ/cm2 ultraviolet B (UVB), we measured the expression levels of COX-2 and Gadd45, which are involved in inflammation and DNA repair, respectively. We also determined the cellular response to UVB-induced DNA damage using the comet assay. Our findings suggest that both the isoflavone glucosides at a specific concentration and combination with an aglycone mixture exerted an anti-inflammatory and photo-protective effect that prevented 41% and 71% of UVB-induced DNA damage, respectively. The advantages of using either isoflavone glucosides or an aglycone mixture in applications in the field of dermatology will depend on their properties and their different potential uses.International Journal of Molecular Sciences 01/2012; 13(12):16444-56. · 2.46 Impact Factor