Depression and pain comorbidity - A literature review

Department of Medicine, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA.
Archives of Internal Medicine (Impact Factor: 13.25). 12/2003; 163(20):2433-45. DOI: 10.1001/archinte.163.20.2433
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Because depression and painful symptoms commonly occur together, we conducted a literature review to determine the prevalence of both conditions and the effects of comorbidity on diagnosis, clinical outcomes, and treatment. The prevalences of pain in depressed cohorts and depression in pain cohorts are higher than when these conditions are individually examined. The presence of pain negatively affects the recognition and treatment of depression. When pain is moderate to severe, impairs function, and/or is refractory to treatment, it is associated with more depressive symptoms and worse depression outcomes (eg, lower quality of life, decreased work function, and increased health care utilization). Similarly, depression in patients with pain is associated with more pain complaints and greater impairment. Depression and pain share biological pathways and neurotransmitters, which has implications for the treatment of both concurrently. A model that incorporates assessment and treatment of depression and pain simultaneously is necessary for improved outcomes.

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    ABSTRACT: Major depression and chronic pain are significant health problems that seriously impact the quality of life of affected individuals. These diseases that individually are difficult to treat often co-exist, thereby compounding the patient's disability and impairment as well as the challenge of successful treatment. The development of efficacious treatments for these comorbid disorders requires a more comprehensive understanding of their linked associations through common neuromodulators, such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), and various neurotransmitters, as well as common neuroanatomical pathways and structures, including the hippocampal brain region. This review discusses the interaction between depression and chronic pain, emphasizing the fundamental role of the hippocampus in the development and maintenance of both disorders. The focus of this review addresses the hypothesis that hippocampal expressed TNFα serves as a therapeutic target for management of chronic pain and major depressive disorder (MDD). Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews 04/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2015.03.014 · 10.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To examine whether painful physical symptoms (PPS) can be considered within the spectrum of depressive symptoms. Data for this post-hoc analysis were taken from a 6-month observational study mostly conducted in East Asia, Mexico, and the Middle East of 1,549 depressed patients without sexual dysfunction at baseline. Both explanatory and confirmatory factor analyses (EFA and CFA) were performed on the combined items of the 16-item Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology Self-Report and the Somatic Symptom Inventory (seven pain-related items only). An additional second-order CFA was also conducted to examine an association between retained factors and the overall "depressive symptoms" factor. In addition, Spearman's correlation was used to assess levels of correlation between retained factors and depression severity as well as quality of life. Both EFA and CFA suggested and validated a four-factor solution, which included a pain factor. The other three factors identified were a mood/cognitive factor, a sleep disturbance factor, and an appetite/weight disturbance factor. All four factors were significantly associated with the overall factor of depression. They were also highly correlated to depression severity and quality of life (p<0.001 for all). The levels of correlations with the pain factor were generally greater than those with the appetite/weight factor and similar to those with the sleep factor. It may be reasonable to consider PPS within a broad spectrum of depressive symptoms. At least, they should be routinely assessed in patients with depression. Further research is warranted to validate these preliminary findings.
    Clinical Practice and Epidemiology in Mental Health 03/2015; 11(1):130-9. DOI:10.2174/1745017901511010130
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    ABSTRACT: Acute pain induces depressed mood, and chronic pain is known to cause depression. Depression, meanwhile, can also adversely affect pain behaviors ranging from symptomology to treatment response. Pain and depression independently induce long-term plasticity in the central nervous system (CNS). Comorbid conditions, however, have distinct patterns of neural activation. We performed a review of the changes in neural circuitry and molecular signaling pathways that may underlie this complex relationship between pain and depression. We also discussed some of the current and future therapies that are based on this understanding of the CNS plasticity that occurs with pain and depression.
    Neural Plasticity 01/2015; 2015:504691. DOI:10.1155/2015/504691 · 3.60 Impact Factor

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