Mechanism of block by fluoxetine of 5-hydroxytryptamine3 (5-HT3)-mediated currents in NCB-20 neuroblastoma cells.
ABSTRACT The effect of fluoxetine (Prozac) on 5-hydroxytryptamine(3) (5-HT(3))-mediated currents in NCB-20 neuroblastoma cells was examined using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. Fluoxetine produced a significant reduction of peak amplitude without altering the activation time course of 5-HT(3)-mediated currents. These effects were concentration-dependent, with an IC(50) value of 4.15 microM. No voltage dependence was evident in fluoxetine's block of 5-HT(3)-mediated currents over the entire voltage range tested. The extent of block by pre-application of fluoxetine was significantly greater than that by co-application. Fluoxetine also increased the apparent rate of current desensitization to 5-HT application. Using a first-order kinetics analysis, the open-channel blocking rate constants were 0.06 microM(-1)s(-1) (k(+1), association rate constant) and 0.05 s(-1) (k(-1), dissociation rate constant), with an apparent K(d) (=k(-1)/k(+1)) of 0.83 microM. This value is close to an IC(50) of 1.11 microM obtained from the reduction in tau, the time constant of desensitization. Intracellular application of fluoxetine for long durations had no effect on the amplitude or kinetics of 5-HT(3)-mediated currents. Similarly, norfluoxetine, the major metabolite of fluoxetine, reduced the peak current, and enhanced the rate of current desensitization in a concentration-dependent manner with an IC(50) of 2.66 microM, indicating that norfluoxetine is more potent than fluoxetine in blocking 5-HT(3)-mediated currents. These results indicate that, at clinically relevant concentrations, fluoxetine and its metabolite, norfluoxetine, block 5-HT(3)-mediated currents in NCB-20 neuroblastoma cells.
Article: Cardiovascular side effects of new antidepressants and antipsychotics: new drugs, old concerns?[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The cardiovascular toxicity of older generation of tricyclic antidepressants (e.g. imipramine, desipramine, amitriptyline, clomipramine) and neuroleptics (e.g. haloperidol, droperidol, thioridazine, pimozide) is well established. These drugs inhibit cardiovascular Na(+), Ca(2+) and K(+) channels often leading to life-threatening arrhythmia. To overcome the toxicity of old generation of antidepressants and antipsychotics, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressants (SSRIs: fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, paroxetine, sertraline, citalopram, venlafaxin) and several new antipsychotics (e.g. clozapine, olanzapine, risperidone, sertindole, aripiprazole, ziprasidone, quetiapine) were introduced during the past decade. Although these new compounds are not more effective in treating psychiatric disorders than older medications, they gained incredible popularity since they have been reported to have fewer and more benign side effect profile (including cardiovascular) than predecessors. Surprisingly, an increasing number of case reports have demonstrated that the use of SSRIs and new antipsychotics (e.g. clozapine, olanzapine, risperidone, sertindole, aripiprazole, ziprasidone, quetiapine) is associated with cases of arrhythmias, prolonged QTc interval on electrocardiogram (ECG) and orthostatic hypotension in patients lacking cardiovascular disorders, raising new concerns about the putative cardiovascular safety of these compounds. In agreement with these clinical reports these new compounds indeed show marked cardiovascular depressant effects in different mammalian and human cardiovascular preparations by inhibiting cardiac and vascular Na(+), Ca(2+) and K(+) channels. Taken together, these results suggest that the new generation of antidepressants and antipsychotics also have clinically important cardiac as well as vascular effects. Clinicians should be more vigilant about these potential adverse reactions and ECG control may be suggested during therapy, especially in patients with cardiovascular disorders. The primary goal of this review is to shed light on the recently observed clinically important cardiovascular effects of new antidepressants and antipsychotics and discuss the mechanism beyond this phenomenon.Current Pharmaceutical Design 02/2004; 10(20):2463-75. · 3.87 Impact Factor
Article: Interaction of bupropion with muscle-type nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in different conformational states.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To characterize the binding sites and the mechanisms of inhibition of bupropion on muscle-type nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs), structural and functional approaches were used. The results established that bupropion (a) inhibits epibatidine-induced Ca(2+) influx in embryonic muscle AChRs, (b) inhibits adult muscle AChR macroscopic currents in the resting/activatable state with approximately 100-fold higher potency compared to that in the open state, (c) increases the desensitization rate of adult muscle AChRs from the open state and impairs channel opening from the resting state, (d) inhibits binding of [(3)H]TCP and [(3)H]imipramine to the desensitized/carbamylcholine-bound Torpedo AChR with higher affinity compared to the resting/alpha-bungarotoxin-bound AChR, (e) binds to the Torpedo AChR in either state mainly by an entropy-driven process, and (f) interacts with a binding domain located between the serine (position 6') and valine (position 13') rings, by a network of van der Waals, hydrogen bond, and polar interactions. Collectively, our data indicate that bupropion first binds to the resting AChR, decreasing the probability of ion channel opening. The remnant fraction of open ion channels is subsequently decreased by accelerating the desensitization process. Bupropion interacts with a luminal binding domain shared with PCP that is located between the serine and valine rings, and this interaction is mediated mainly by an entropy-driven process.Biochemistry 04/2009; 48(21):4506-18. · 3.42 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Serotonin (5-HT)3 receptors are the only ligand-gated ion channel of the 5-HT receptors family. They are present both in the peripheral and central nervous system and are localized in several areas involved in mood regulation (e.g., hippocampus or prefrontal cortex). Moreover, they are involved in regulation of neurotransmitter systems implicated in the pathophysiology of major depression (e.g., dopamine or GABA). Clinical and preclinical studies have suggested that 5-HT3 receptors may be a relevant target in the treatment of affective disorders. 5-HT3 receptor agonists seem to counteract the effects of antidepressants in non-clinical models, whereas 5-HT3 receptor antagonists, such as ondansetron, present antidepressant-like activities. In addition, several antidepressants, such as mirtazapine, also target 5-HT3 receptors. In this review, we will report major advances in the research of 5-HT3 receptor’s roles in neuropsychiatric disorders, with special emphasis on mood and anxiety disorders.Pharmaceuticals. 01/2011;