Reconstitution of membrane proteins into liposomes.
Institut Curie, UMR-CNRS 168 and LRC-CEA 34V, 11 Rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75231 Paris, France.Methods in Enzymology (impact factor: 2.04). 02/2003; 372:65-86. DOI:10.1016/S0076-6879(03)72004-7 pp.65-86
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ABSTRACT: Translocator protein TSPO is a membrane protein highly conserved in evolution which does not belong to any structural known family. TSPO is involved in physiological functions among which transport of molecules such as cholesterol to form steroids and bile salts in mammalian cells. Membrane protein structure determination remains a difficult task and needs concomitant approaches (for instance X-ray- or Electron-crystallography and NMR). Electron microscopy and two-dimensional crystallization under functionalized monolayers have been successfully developed for recombinant tagged proteins. The difficulty comes from the detergent carried by membrane proteins that disrupt the lipid monolayer. We identified the best conditions for injecting the histidine tagged recombinant TSPO in detergent in the subphase and to keep the protein stable. Reconstituted recombinant protein into a lipid bilayer favors its adsorption to functionalized monolayers and limits the disruption of the monolayer by reducing the amount of detergent. Finally, we obtained the first transmission electron microscopy images of recombinant mouse TSPO negatively stained bound to the lipid monolayer after injection into the subphase of pre-reconstituted TSPO in lipids. Image analysis reveals that circular objects could correspond to an association of at least four monomers of mouse TSPO. The different amino acid compositions and the location of the polyhistidine tag between bacterial and mouse TSPO could account for the formation of dimer versus tetramer, respectively. The difference in the loop between the first and second putative transmembrane domain may contribute to distinct monomer interaction, this is supported by differences in ligand binding parameters and biological functions of both proteins.Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 07/2012; 1818(11):2791-800. · 4.66 Impact Factor
Article: Optimized purification of a heterodimeric ABC transporter in a highly stable form amenable to 2-D crystallization.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Optimized protocols for achieving high-yield expression, purification and reconstitution of membrane proteins are required to study their structure and function. We previously reported high-level expression in Escherichia coli of active BmrC and BmrD proteins from Bacillus subtilis, previously named YheI and YheH. These proteins are half-transporters which belong to the ABC (ATP-Binding Cassette) superfamily and associate in vivo to form a functional transporter able to efflux drugs. In this report, high-yield purification and functional reconstitution were achieved for the heterodimer BmrC/BmrD. In contrast to other detergents more efficient for solubilizing the transporter, dodecyl-ß-D-maltoside (DDM) maintained it in a drug-sensitive and vanadate-sensitive ATPase-competent state after purification by affinity chromatography. High amounts of pure proteins were obtained which were shown either by analytical ultracentrifugation or gel filtration to form a monodisperse heterodimer in solution, which was notably stable for more than one month at 4°C. Functional reconstitution using different lipid compositions induced an 8-fold increase of the ATPase activity (k(cat)∼5 s(-1)). We further validated that the quality of the purified BmrC/BmrD heterodimer is suitable for structural analyses, as its reconstitution at high protein densities led to the formation of 2-D crystals. Electron microscopy of negatively stained crystals allowed the calculation of a projection map at 20 Å resolution revealing that BmrC/BmrD might assemble into oligomers in a lipidic environment.PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(5):e19677. · 4.09 Impact Factor
Article: Green fluorescent protein changes the conductance of connexin 43 (Cx43) hemichannels reconstituted in planar lipid bilayers.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: In mammalian tissues, connexin 43 (Cx43) is the most prominent member of the connexin family. In a single lipid bilayer, six connexin subunits assemble into a hemichannel (connexon). Direct communication of apposing cells is realized by two adjacent hemichannels, which can form gap junction channels. Here, we established an expression system in Pichia pastoris to recombinantly produce and purify Cx43 as well as Cx43 fused to green fluorescent protein (GFP). Proteins were isolated from crude cell membrane fractions via affinity chromatography. Cx43 and Cx43-GFP hemichannels were reconstituted in giant unilamellar vesicles as proven by fluorescence microscopy, and their electrophysiological behavior was analyzed on the single channel level by planar patch clamping. Cx43 and Cx43-GFP both showed an ohmic behavior and a voltage-dependent open probability. Cx43 hemichannels exhibited one major mean conductance of 224 ± 26 picosiemens (pS). In addition, a subconductance state at 124 ± 5 pS was identified. In contrast, the analysis of Cx43-GFP single channels revealed 10 distinct conductance states in the range of 15 to 250 pS, with a larger open probability at 0 mV as compared with Cx43, which suggests that intermolecular interactions between the GFP molecules alter the electrophysiology of the protein.Journal of Biological Chemistry 12/2011; 287(4):2877-86. · 4.77 Impact Factor
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