Article

Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase II Deficiency: A Clinical, Biochemical, and Molecular Review

Department of Pathology, The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75390, USA.
Laboratory Investigation (Impact Factor: 3.83). 11/2003; 83(11):1543-54. DOI: 10.1097/01.LAB.0000098428.51765.83
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Congenital deficiency of carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT) II has been known for at least 30 years now, and its phenotypic variability remains fascinating. Three distinct clinical entities have been described, the adult, the infantile, and the perinatal, all with an autosomal recessive inheritance pattern. The adult CPT II clinical phenotype is somewhat benign and requires additional external triggers such as high-intensity exercise before the predominantly myopathic symptoms are elicited. The perinatal and infantile forms involve multiple organ systems. The perinatal disease is the most severe form and is invariably fatal. The introduction of mass spectrometry to analyze blood acylcarnitine profiles has revolutionized the diagnosis of fatty acid oxidation disorders including CPT II deficiency. Its use in expanded neonatal screening programs has made presymptomatic diagnosis a reality. An increasing number of mutations are being identified in the CPT II gene with a distinct genotype-phenotype correlation in most cases. However, clinical variability in some patients suggests additional genetic or environmental modifiers. Herein, we present a new case of lethal perinatal CPT II deficiency with a rare missense mutation, R296Q (907G>A) associated with a previously described 25-bp deletion on the second allele. We review the clinical features, the diagnostic protocol including expanded neonatal screening, the treatment, and the biochemical and molecular basis of CPT II deficiency.

1 Follower
 · 
111 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Aim. To raise the awareness of adult-onset carnitite palmitoyltransferase II deficiency (CPT II) by describing clinical, biochemical, and genetic features of the disease occurring in early adulthood. Method. Review of the case characteristics and literature review. Results. We report on a 20-year-old man presenting with dyspnea, fatigue, fever, and myoglobinuria. This was the second episode with such symptoms (the previous one being three years earlier). The symptoms occurred after intense physical work, followed by a viral infection resulting in fever treated with NSAIDs. Massive rhabdomyolysis was diagnosed, resulting in acute renal failure necessitating plasmapheresis and hemodialysis, acute hepatic lesion, and respiratory insufficiency. Additionally, our patient had cardiomyopathy with volume overload. After a detailed workup, CPT II deficiency was suspected. We did a sequencing analysis for exons 1, 3, and 4 of the CPT II gene and found that the patient was homozygote for Ser 113 Leu mutation in exon 3 of the CPT II gene. The patient recovery was complete except for the cardiomiopathy with mildly impaired systolic function. Conclusion. Whenever a patient suffers recurrent episodes of myalgia, followed by myoglobinuria due to rhabdomyolysis, we should always consider the possibility of this rare condition. The definitive diagnose of this condition is achieved by genetic testing.
    01/2014; 2014:496410. DOI:10.1155/2014/496410
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Aim. To raise the awareness of adult-onset carnitite palmitoyltransferase II deficiency (CPT II) by describing clinical, biochemical, and genetic features of the disease occurring in early adulthood. Method. Review of the case characteristics and literature review. Results. We report on a 20-year-old man presenting with dyspnea, fatigue, fever, and myoglobinuria. This was the second episode with such symptoms (the previous one being three years earlier). The symptoms occurred after intense physical work, followed by a viral infection resulting in fever treated with NSAIDs. Massive rhabdomyolysis was diagnosed, resulting in acute renal failure necessitating plasmapheresis and hemodialysis, acute hepatic lesion, and respiratory insufficiency. Additionally, our patient had cardiomyopathy with volume overload. After a detailed workup, CPT II deficiency was suspected. We did a sequencing analysis for exons 1, 3, and 4 of the CPT II gene and found that the patient was homozygote for Ser 113 Leu mutation in exon 3 of the CPT II gene. The patient recovery was complete except for the cardiomiopathy with mildly impaired systolic function. Conclusion. Whenever a patient suffers recurrent episodes of myalgia, followed by myoglobinuria due to rhabdomyolysis, we should always consider the possibility of this rare condition. The definitive diagnose of this condition is achieved by genetic testing.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Bezafibrate therapy has been shown to improve beta-oxidation of fatty acids and to reduce episodes of rhabdomyolysis in patients with carnitine palmitoyltransferase type-2 (CPT2) deficiency. We report the efficacy of fenofibrate in a patient with CPT2 deficiency, in whom beta-oxidation was improved but an episode of rhabdomyolysis nevertheless occurred. This suggests additional methods to avoid rhabdomyolysis in patients with CPT2 deficiency should accompany fibrate therapy, including avoidance of muscular overexertion, dehydration, and heat exposure.
    Case Reports in Medicine 01/2012; 2012:163173. DOI:10.1155/2012/163173