Hemodynamic effects of a continuous infusion of levosimendan in critically ill patients with cardiogenic shock requiring catecholamines.
ABSTRACT Levosimendan, a novel inodilator, has been shown to improve hemodynamic function in patients with decompensated heart failure with preserved arterial blood pressure. Data on its use in patients with cardiogenic shock are rare. The present series describes the 24-h hemodynamic effects of levosimendan as add-on therapy in desperately ill patients with cardiogenic shock requiring catecholamines.
Ten patients with cardiogenic shock received levosimendan as continuous infusion of 0.1 microg kg(-1) min(-1) for 24 h. The patients were otherwise unselected. Hemodynamic measurements were routinely performed at baseline (time 0) and at 1, 8, 16 and 24 h after start of levosimendan (LS) using a Swan-Ganz thermodilution catheter.
During the levosimendan infusion there was a significant increase in cardiac index from 1.8 +/- 0.4 to 2.4 +/- 0.6 L*min-1*m-2 (P = 0.023) and a significant decrease in systemic vascular resistance from 1559 +/- 430 to 1109 +/- 202 dyn*s*cm-5 (P = 0.001), respectively. Changes in catecholamine dose, and in systolic and diastolic blood pressure were not significant. Given the individual response to LS, 8/10 patients showed an increase in left ventricular stroke work index under reduced or roughly unchanged preload conditions after 8 h.
This series shows that a LS infusion is feasible and able to improve hemodynamics in severely compromized, critically ill patients with cardiogenic shock requiring catecholamine therapy. Its potential advantages when compared with other inotropes are unclear. To clarify the potential role of LS in this clinical setting randomized controlled trials on hemodynamic and mortality endpoints are needed.
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ABSTRACT: To report the development of myocardial stunning and severe heart failure after lightning strike with total recovery of function. Case report. Coronary care unit at Medica Sur Clinic, Mexico. A 42-yr-old woman who was hit by lightning developed rapid and progressive hemodynamic deterioration manifested by cardiogenic shock that required invasive monitoring. Twenty-four hours after the strike, intravenous levosimendan and intra-aortic balloon pump were initiated because the patient demonstrated no significant response to management with conventional inotropic agents. Two days later, echocardiographic signs of systolic and diastolic dysfunction improved markedly. Dual-isotope-imaging myocardial perfusion testing with technetium-99m-sestamibi and thallium-201, performed 9 days after admission, showed normal perfusion and normal left ventricular systolic function. The patient exhibited complete recovery of function. The exact mechanism of abnormal contractility in the absence of direct electrofulguration is unknown but may be explained by release of oxygen free radicals, proteolysis of the contractile apparatus, and cytosolic overload of intracellular calcium, followed by reduced myofilament sensitivity to calcium. These abnormalities are consistent with stunned myocardium. Lightning strike may cause serious contractile dysfunction in the absence of irreversible myocardial injury, but the exact mechanism of this phenomenon remains unknown. We propose that lighting strike can cause myocardial stunning resulting in severe but reversible left ventricular dysfunction. The patient's recovery was facilitated by support treatment including administration of levosimendan, which increases the intracellular sensitivity to calcium, a mechanism disturbed in patients with myocardial stunning.Critical Care Medicine 02/2007; 35(1):280-5. · 6.33 Impact Factor
Article: [Hemodynamic effects of levosimendan compared with dobutamine in patients with low cardiac output after cardiac surgery].[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Levosimendan is an inotropic agent that is effective in the treatment of heart failure. However, experience with levosimendan in patients with reduced cardiac output following cardiopulmonary bypass is limited. The objective of this study was to compare the short-term hemodynamic effects of levosimendan with those of dobutamine in managing low cardiac output after cardiac surgery. Forty-one patients who had low cardiac output after cardiopulmonary bypass were randomly assigned to dobutamine (n=20), 24-hour infusion of 7.5 microg/kg per min, or levosimendan (n=21), at a loading dose of 12 microg/kg followed by 24-hour infusion of 0.2 microg/kg per min. The following parameters were determined during a 48-hour observation period: arterial, central venous, pulmonary arterial and pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, cardiac index, heart rate, stroke volume, and systemic and pulmonary vascular resistance. Although both dobutamine and levosimendan improved the cardiac index, the increase was significantly greater with levosimendan (2.4 [0.2] l/min per m2 vs 2.9 [0.3] l/min per m2, respectively, at 24 h; P<.05). Moreover, levosimendan significantly reduced systemic and pulmonary vascular resistance, and significantly decreased systemic arterial, pulmonary arterial, pulmonary capillary wedge, and central venous pressure. Both dobutamine and levosimendan are effective in managing postoperative low cardiac output. However, levosimendan induces non-specific systemic, venous and pulmonary vasodilation which can result in hypotension as a adverse event. In these patients, it is advisable to omit or reduce the loading dose.Revista Espa de Cardiologia 04/2006; 59(4):338-45. · 2.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Several clinical studies suggest substantial limitations of currently available positive inotropic substances, including beta1-adrenoceptor agonists and phosphodiesterase III inhibitors in the short- and long-term treatment of heart failure. The reasons for these detrimental effects are related to the mechanism of action of these drugs, including increases in intracellular Ca2+ with subsequent increases in myocardial oxygen demand and arrhythmogenesis. Levosimendan, a myofilament Ca2+ sensitizer with inotropic effects, increases myocardial performance without substantial changes in oxygen consumption and with neutral effects on heart rhythm. In addition, levosimendan has vasodilatory effects that are achieved by stimulation of adenosine triphosphate-dependent potassium channels. This action may be of specific interest in the setting of myocardial ischemia. To date, levosimendan is approved in 31 countries worldwide, and more patients with heart failure have participated in randomized controlled trials with levosimendan than with any other intravenous inotropic agent.Anesthesiology 04/2006; 104(3):556-69. · 5.36 Impact Factor