Measuring control appraisals in chronic pain
ABSTRACT Research has established a positive association between appraisals of control over pain and indexes of adaptive psychologic and physical functioning among persons with chronic pain. A number of measures of control appraisals have been used in the research literature. The current study sought to determine the number of factors or dimensions embedded in these commonly used measures of pain control appraisal. The study also sought to determine the association between the control appraisal construct(s) and measures of patient functioning. Two hundred fifty-two persons with chronic pain completed a questionnaire packet that included multiple measures of control appraisals. A factor analysis resulted in 6 factors: 1 factor representing beliefs about control over life in general, 1 representing perceived control over the effects of pain on one's life, and remaining 4 factors that appear to be more closely tied to perceived control over pain itself. Consistent with previous research, control appraisals made a significant contribution to the prediction of functioning (depression, disability, and pain interference). Most importantly, perceived control over the effects of pain on one's life and perceived control over life in general were more strongly associated with functioning than perceptions of control over pain itself.
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- "For example, relaxation may control both one's pain and the impact of pain on one's life. Regardless, though, as Tan et al. (2002) demonstrated, perceived control over the effects of pain was more strongly related to better adjustment and less disability than perceived control over pain itself. McCracken et al. (2004) proposed that the ineffective struggle to gain control over pain that is essentially uncontrollable should be abandoned, and that acceptance of pain may foster the sense of general life control. "
ABSTRACT: The prevalence and cost of chronic pain is a major physical and mental health care problem in the United States today. As a result, there has been a recent explosion of research on chronic pain, with significant advances in better understanding its etiology, assessment, and treatment. The purpose of the present article is to provide a review of the most noteworthy developments in the field. The biopsychosocial model is now widely accepted as the most heuristic approach to chronic pain. With this model in mind, a review of the basic neuroscience processes of pain (the bio part of biopsychosocial), as well as the psychosocial factors, is presented. This spans research on how psychological and social factors can interact with brain processes to influence health and illness as well as on the development of new technologies, such as brain imaging, that provide new insights into brain-pain mechanisms.Psychological Bulletin 08/2007; 133(4):581-624. DOI:10.1037/0033-2909.133.4.581 · 14.39 Impact Factor
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- "control pain may be especially unhelpful in the context of pain experiences that are particularly intense (Jensen and Karoly, 1991). Perceived control over effects of pain on life functioning is more strongly associated with functioning than perceived control over pain itself (Tan et al., 2003). Other data show that patients who report greater struggling to control pain also report greater pain, distress, and disability (McCracken et al., under review). "
ABSTRACT: Research and clinical developments over the past 20 years are beginning to shed new light on thoughts, sensations, emotions, their role in influencing behavior, and the particular ways in which private experiences contribute to human suffering (e.g. Hayes et al., 2001). This has led to different approaches to treating a broad array of behavior problems, approaches that incorporate a partnership of acceptance and change. We have defined acceptance of chronic pain as an active willingness to engage in meaningful activities in life regardless of pain-related sensations, thoughts, and other related feelings that might otherwise hinder that engagement. It is about not engaging in unnecessary struggles with private experiences, struggles that often intensify the aversiveness of those experiences and enhance their life disrupting influences. What is novel about this approach is that it is not simply a new psychological variable but a description of a different set of processes of pain and suffering. This approach is fully situated within the broader empirical tradition of the behavioral and cognitive therapies. The examination of its potential merits is already underway.Pain 06/2004; 109(1-2):4-7. DOI:10.1016/j.pain.2004.02.006 · 5.84 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Chronic pain is that one that persists for more than three months. Psychological intervention in these kinds of disorders has demonstrated to be effective, mainly when it is placed in a multidis- ciplinary program.This paper points out the objectives of such therapy, the main psychological techniques used in this kind of patients, and the cognitive-emotional factors that should be consi- dered at the time of integrating a therapeutic process oriented to help people who suffer from pain. Finally, it is emphasized that the psychological education of a psychologist oriented to as- sist patients with chroic pain should be based on the study and understanding of the complex dynamics existing among said elements.