Investigation of SEN virus infection in patients with cryptogenic acute liver failure, hepatitis-associated aplastic anemia, or acute and chronic non-A-E hepatitis
ABSTRACT SEN virus (SENV) has been tentatively linked to transfusion-associated non-A-E hepatitis. We investigated SENV's role in unexplained hepatitis in other settings. Polymerase chain reaction amplification was used to detect 2 SENV variants (SENV-D and SENV-H) in 1706 patients and control subjects. SENV was detected in 54 (22%) of 248 patients with acute or chronic non-A-E hepatitis, 9 (35%) of 26 patients with hepatitis-associated aplastic anemia, and 0 of 17 patients with cryptogenic acute liver failure, compared with 150 (24%) of 621 control subjects with liver disease and 76 (10%) of 794 healthy control subjects. When controlling for geographic region, the prevalence of SENV among case and control subjects was not significantly different. The severity of acute or chronic hepatitis A, B, or C was not influenced by coexisting SENV infection. No etiological role for SENV in the cause of cryptogenic hepatitis could be demonstrated.
SourceAvailable from: Takefumi Kimura[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Although we earlier demonstrated that the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) DRB1*04:05 allele was associated with susceptibility to autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) in Japan, the precise relationship of HLA haplotype and the role of amino acid alignment with disease susceptibility and progression has not been fully clarified. We reinvestigated HLA class I A, B, and C and HLA class II DRB1, DQB1, and DPB1 alleles and haplotypes in a larger new cohort of 156 Japanese patients with type 1 AIH and compared them with the published data of 210 healthy subjects. The DRB1*04:05-DQB1*04:01 haplotype was significantly associated with AIH susceptibility (30% vs. 11%, P = 1.2×10-10; odds ratio [OR] = 3.51) and correlated with elevated serum IgG (3042 vs. 2606 mg/dL, P = 0.041) and anti-smooth muscle antigen positivity (77% vs. 34%, P = 0.000006). No associations with HLA-DPB1 alleles were found. The HLA A*24:02 and C*01:02 alleles were associated with disease susceptibility (corrected P = 0.0053 and 0.036, respectively), but this likely constituents of a long ranged haplotype including DRB1*04:05-DQB1*04:01 haplotype. Conversely, the DRB1*15:01-DQB1*06:02 haplotype was associated with protection from both disease onset (5% vs. 13%, P = 0.00057; OR = 0.38) and the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (25% vs. 5%, P = 0.017; OR = 6.81). The frequency of the DRB1*08:03-DQB1*06:01 haplotype was significantly higher in patients who developed hepatic failure (22% vs. 6%, P = 0.034; OR = 4.38). In conclusion, this study established the role of HLA haplotypes in determining AIH susceptibility and progression in the Japanese population. Additional sequencing of the entire HLA region is required to more precisely identify the genetic components of AIH.PLoS ONE 06/2014; 9(6):e100565. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0100565 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Objective: Viral infections are often suspected to cause pediatric acute liver failure (PALF), but large-scale studies have not been performed. We analyzed the results of viral testing among nonacetaminophen PALF study participants. Methods: Participants were enrolled in the PALF registry. Diagnostic evaluation and final diagnosis were determined by the site investigator and methods for viral testing by local standard of care. Viruses were classified as either causative viruses (CVs) or associated viruses (AVs). Supplemental testing for CV was performed if not done clinically and serum was available. Final diagnoses included "viral," "indeterminate," and "other." Results: Of 860 participants, 820 had at least I test result for a CV or AV. A positive viral test was found in 166/820 (20.2%) participants and distributed among "viral" (66/80 [82.5%]), "indeterminate" (52/420 [12.4%]), and "other" (48/320 [15.0%]) diagnoses. CVs accounted for 81/166 (48.8%) positive tests. Herpes simplex virus (HSV) was positive in 39/335 (11.6%) who were tested 26/103 (25.2%) and 13/232(5.6%) among infants 0 to 6 and >6 months, respectively. HSV was not tested in 61.0% and 53% of the overall cohort and those 0 to 6 months, respectively. Supplemental testing yielded 17 positive, including 5 HSV. Conclusions: Viral testing in PALF occurs frequently but is often incomplete. The evidence for acute viral infection was found in 20.2% of those tested for viruses. HSV is an important viral cause for PALF in all age groups. The etiopathogenic role of CV and AV in PALF requires further investigation.Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition 11/2014; 59(5):616-23. DOI:10.1097/MPG.0000000000000512 · 2.87 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Human torque teno viruses (TTVs) are new, emerging infectious agents, recently assigned to the family Anelloviridae. The first representative of the genus, torque teno virus (TTV), was discovered in 1997, followed by torque teno mini virus (TTMV) in 2000, and torque teno midi virus (TTMDV) in 2007. These viruses are characterized by an extremely high prevalence, with relatively uniform distribution worldwide and a high level of genomic heterogeneity, as well as an apparent pan-tropism at the host level. Although these viruses have a very high prevalence in the general population across the globe, neither their interaction with their hosts nor their direct involvement in the etiology of specific diseases are fully understood. Since their discovery, human anelloviruses, and especially TTV, have been suggested to be associated with various diseases, such as hepatitis, respiratory diseases, cancer, hematological and autoimmune disorders, with few arguments for their direct involvement. Recent studies have started to reveal interactions between TTVs and the host's immune system, leading to new hypotheses for potential pathological mechanisms of these viruses. In this review article, we discuss the most important aspects and current status of human TTVs in order to guide future studies.Archives of Virology 02/2015; 160(4). DOI:10.1007/s00705-015-2363-9 · 2.28 Impact Factor