Heritability of Adult Body Height: A Comparative Study of Twin Cohorts in Eight Countries

Department of Public Health, University of Helsinki, Finland.
Twin Research 11/2003; 6(5):399-408. DOI: 10.1375/136905203770326402
Source: PubMed


A major component of variation in body height is due to genetic differences, but environmental factors have a substantial contributory effect. In this study we aimed to analyse whether the genetic architecture of body height varies between affluent western societies. We analysed twin data from eight countries comprising 30,111 complete twin pairs by using the univariate genetic model of the Mx statistical package. Body height and zygosity were self-reported in seven populations and measured directly in one population. We found that there was substantial variation in mean body height between countries; body height was least in Italy (177 cm in men and 163 cm in women) and greatest in the Netherlands (184 cm and 171 cm, respectively). In men there was no corresponding variation in heritability of body height, heritability estimates ranging from 0.87 to 0.93 in populations under an additive genes/unique environment (AE) model. Among women the heritability estimates were generally lower than among men with greater variation between countries, ranging from 0.68 to 0.84 when an additive genes/shared environment/unique environment (ACE) model was used. In four populations where an AE model fit equally well or better, heritability ranged from 0.89 to 0.93. This difference between the sexes was mainly due to the effect of the shared environmental component of variance, which appears to be more important among women than among men in our study populations. Our results indicate that, in general, there are only minor differences in the genetic architecture of height between affluent Caucasian populations, especially among men.

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    • "indicating the importance of various environmental and genetic factors on both parental and neonatal phenotype. Documented associations between parental and offspring height are stronger in adulthood than at birth, with heritability estimates of around 80% in adulthood for relatively wealthy populations (Silventoinen et al., 2003). Heritability estimates of various measurements including head circumference, height and weight also increase from approximately 6 months of age compared with at birth when they are typically 25–30% (Levine et al., 1987; Demerath et al., 2007; Johnson et al., 2011; Silventoinen et al., 2011; Mook-Kanamori et al., 2012). "
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    ABSTRACT: The patterns of association between maternal or paternal and neonatal phenotype may offer insight into how neonatal characteristics are shaped by evolutionary processes, such as conflicting parental interests in fetal investment and obstetric constraints. Paternal interests are theoretically served by maximizing fetal growth, and maternal interests by managing investment in current and future offspring, but whether paternal and maternal influences act on different components of overall size is unknown. We tested whether parents' prepregnancy height and body mass index (BMI) were related to neonatal anthropometry (birthweight, head circumference, absolute and proportional limb segment and trunk lengths, subcutaneous fat) among 1,041 Australian neonates using stepwise linear regression. Maternal and paternal height and maternal BMI were associated with birthweight. Paternal height related to offspring forearm and lower leg lengths, maternal height and BMI to neonatal head circumference, and maternal BMI to offspring adiposity. Principal components analysis identified three components of variability reflecting neonatal “head and trunk skeletal size,” “adiposity,” and “limb lengths.” Regression analyses of the component scores supported the associations of head and trunk size or adiposity with maternal anthropometry, and limb lengths with paternal anthropometry. Our results suggest that while neonatal fatness reflects environmental conditions (maternal physiology), head circumference and limb and trunk lengths show differing associations with parental anthropometry. These patterns may reflect genetics, parental imprinting and environmental influences in a manner consistent with parental conflicts of interest. Paternal height may relate to neonatal limb length as a means of increasing fetal growth without exacerbating the risk of obstetric complications.
    American Journal of Physical Anthropology 12/2014; Early view(4). DOI:10.1002/ajpa.22680 · 2.38 Impact Factor
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    • "Adult attained height reflects fetal, infant and childhood growth and hence the influence of in utero and postpartum environment and genes [1, 2]. Height is an important marker of health, because shorter people have higher cardiovascular disease risk [3, 4] and higher overall mortality [5], albeit a lower risk of developing some cancers [4–6]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Socioeconomic disadvantage is associated with shorter adult stature. Few studies have examined socioeconomic differences in stature from birth to childhood and the mechanisms involved, particularly in middle-income former Soviet settings. The sample included 12,463 Belarusian children (73% of the original cohort) born in 1996–1997, with up to 14 stature measurements from birth to 7 years. Linear spline multi-level models with 3 knots at 3, 12 and 34 months were used to analyse birth length and growth velocity during four age-periods by parental educational achievement (up to secondary school, advanced secondary/partial university, completed university) and occupation (manual, non-manual). Girls born to the most (versus least) educated mothers were 0.43 cm (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.28, 0.58) longer at birth; for boys, the corresponding difference was 0.30 cm (95% CI: 0.15, 0.46). Similarly, children of the most educated mothers grew faster from birth-3 months and 12–34 months (p-values for trend ≤0.08), such that, by age 7 years, girls with the most (versus least) educated mothers were 1.92 cm (95% CI: 1.47, 2.36) taller; after controlling for urban/rural and East/West area of residence, this difference remained at 1.86 cm (95% CI: 1.42, 2.31), but after additionally controlling for mid-parental height, attenuated to 1.10 cm (95% CI: 0.69, 1.52). Among boys, these differences were 1.95 cm (95% CI: 1.53, 2.37), 1.89 cm (95% CI: 1.47, 2.31) and 1.16 cm (95% CI: 0.77, 1.55), respectively. Additionally controlling for breastfeeding, maternal smoking and older siblings did not substantively alter these findings. There was no evidence that the association of maternal educational attainment with growth differed in girls compared to boys (p for interaction = 0.45). Results were similar for those born to the most (versus least) educated fathers, or who had a parent with a non-manual (versus manual) occupation. In Belarus, a middle-income former Soviet country, socioeconomic differences in offspring growth commence in the pre-natal period and generate up to approximately 2 cm difference in height at age 7 years. These associations are partly explained by genetic or other factors influencing parental stature. Trial Registration Current Controlled Trials: NCT01352247 assigned 9 Sept 2005; ClinicalTrials.gov. Identifier: NCT01561612 received 20 Mar 2012.
    BMC Public Health 09/2014; 14(1):932. DOI:10.1186/1471-2458-14-932 · 2.26 Impact Factor
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    • "It is reported that stature is a genetically determined trait, with heritability estimated at approximately 80% (26). Several genome-wide association studies on stature have recently been published, mostly on Caucasian-based populations (27,28,29). "
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    ABSTRACT: Ob­jec­ti­ve: Standard deviation score or Z-score reference charts are used in some countries in preference to percentile charts and are considered as better tools in assessing children with measurements outside the accepted limits of normality. Growth data for Istanbul children have previously been reported as percentiles; hence, the aim of this study is to present these data in Z-score reference tables. Data on secular trend in height in Turkish children will also be presented. Methods: Height and weight data based on a total of 11 664 height and 11 655 weight measurements in 1100 boys and 1020 girls between 6 and 18 years of age obtained by biannual visits to schools were analyzed. All children came from well-to-do families and were all healthy. All measurements were made by two trained technicians. The LMS method was used in the analyses. The results were expressed as Z-score values for age. Results: Heights of the boys and girls in all age groups were close to the updated USA growth references and showed an upward trend from previous data on Turkish children. Conclusions: Height growth in Turkish school-age children of high socioeconomic level conforms to the updated growth data for USA children and also shows a secular trend. The data also point to the importance of updating local growth data periodically.
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