Promoting brief alcohol intervention by nurses in primary care: a cluster randomised controlled trial.
ABSTRACT This trial evaluated the clinical impact and cost-effectiveness of strategies promoting screening and brief alcohol intervention (SBI) by nurses in primary care. Randomisation was at the level of the practice and the interventions were: written guidelines (controls, n=76); outreach training (n=68); and training plus telephone-based support (n=68). After 3 months, just 39% of controls implemented the SBI programme compared to 74% of nurses in trained practices and 71% in trained and supported practices. Controls also screened fewer patients and delivered fewer brief interventions to risk drinkers than other colleagues. However, there was a trade-off between the extent and the appropriateness of brief intervention delivery with controls displaying the least errors in overall patient management. Thus cost-effectiveness ratios (cost per patient appropriately treated) were similar between the three strategies. Given the potential for anxiety due to misdirected advice about alcohol-related risk, the balance of evidence favoured the use of written guidelines to promote SBI by nurses in primary care.
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The European level of alcohol consumption, and the subsequent burden of disease, is high compared to the rest of the world. While screening and brief interventions in primary healthcare are cost-effective, in most countries they have hardly been implemented in routine primary healthcare. In this study, we aim to examine the effectiveness and efficiency of three implementation interventions that have been chosen to address key barriers for improvement: training and support to address lack of knowledge and motivation in healthcare providers; financial reimbursement to compensate the time investment; and internet-based counselling to reduce workload for primary care providers.Methods/design: In a cluster randomized factorial trial, data from Catalan, English, Netherlands, Polish, and Swedish primary healthcare units will be collected on screening and brief advice rates for hazardous and harmful alcohol consumption. The three implementation strategies will be provided separately and in combination in a total of seven intervention groups and compared with a treatment as usual control group. Screening and brief intervention activities will be measured at baseline, during 12 weeks and after six months. Process measures include health professionals' role security and therapeutic commitment of the participating providers (SAAPPQ questionnaire). A total of 120 primary healthcare units will be included, equally distributed over the five countries. Both intention to treat and per protocol analyses are planned to determine intervention effectiveness, using random coefficient regression modelling. DISCUSSION: Effective interventions to implement screening and brief interventions for hazardous alcohol use are urgently required. This international multi-centre trial will provide evidence to guide decision makers.Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov. Trial identifier: NCT01501552.Implementation Science 01/2013; 8(1):11. · 2.37 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: General practitioners with more positive role security and therapeutic commitment towards patients with hazardous or harmful alcohol consumption are more involved and manage more alcohol-related problems than others. In this study we evaluated the effects of our tailored multi-faceted improvement implementation programme on GPs' role security and therapeutic commitment and, in addition, which professional related factors influenced the impact of the implementation programme. In a cluster randomised controlled trial, 124 GPs from 82 Dutch general practices were randomised to either the intervention or control group. The tailored, multi-faceted programme included combined physician, organisation, and patient directed alcohol-specific implementation strategies to increase role security and therapeutic commitment in GPs. The control group was mailed the national guideline and patients received feedback letters. Questionnaires were completed before and 12 months after start of the programme. We performed linear multilevel regression analysis to evaluate effects of the implementation programme. Participating GPs were predominantly male (63%) and had received very low levels of alcohol related education before start of the study (0.4 h). The programme increased therapeutic commitment (p = 0.005; 95%-CI 0.13 - 0.73) but not role security (p = 0.58; 95%-CI -0.31 - 0.54). How important GPs thought it was to improve their care for problematic alcohol consumption, and the GPs' reported proportion of patients asked about alcohol consumption at baseline, contributed to the effect of the programme on therapeutic commitment. A tailored, multi-faceted programme aimed at improving GP management of patients with hazardous and harmful alcohol consumption improved GPs' therapeutic commitment towards patients with alcohol-related problems, but failed to improve GPs' role security. How important GPs thought it was to improve their care for problematic alcohol consumption, and the GPs' reported proportion of patients asked about alcohol consumption at baseline, both increased the impact of the programme on therapeutic commitment. It might be worthwhile to monitor proceeding of role security and therapeutic commitment throughout the year after the implementation programme, to see whether the programme is effective on short term but faded out on the longer term.Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00298220.BMC Family Practice 04/2014; 15(1):70. · 1.61 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Primary care clinicians have considerable potential to provide preventive care. This study describes their preventive care delivery. A survey of 384 community health nurses and allied health clinicians from in New South Wales, Australia was undertaken (2010-11) to examine the assessment of client risk, provision of brief advice and referral/follow-up regarding smoking inadequate fruit and vegetable consumption, alcohol misuse, and physical inactivity; the existence of preventive care support strategies; and the association between supports and preventive care provision. Preventive care to 80% or more clients was least often provided for referral/follow-up (24.7-45.6% of clinicians for individual risks, and 24.2% for all risks) and most often for assessment (34.4-69.3% of clinicians for individual risks, and 24.4% for all risks). Approximately 75% reported having 9 or fewer of 17 supports. Provision of care was associated with: availability of a paper screening tool; training; GP referral letter; and number of supports. The delivery of preventive care was limited, and varied according to type of care and risk. Supports were variably associated with elements of preventive care. Further research is required to increase routine preventive care delivery and the availability of supports.Patient Education and Counseling 11/2013; · 2.60 Impact Factor