Muscle mechanoreflex induces the pressor response by resetting the arterial baroreflex neural arc
ABSTRACT The effects of the muscle mechanoreflex on the arterial baroreflex neural control have not previously been analyzed over the entire operating range of the arterial baroreflex. In anesthetized, vagotomized, and aortic-denervated rabbits (n = 8), we isolated carotid sinuses and changed intracarotid sinus pressure (CSP) from 40 to 160 mmHg in increments of 20 mmHg every minute while recording renal sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) and arterial pressure (AP). Muscle mechanoreflex was induced by passive muscle stretch (5 kg of tension) of the hindlimb. Muscle stretch shifted the CSP-SNA relationship (neural arc) to a higher SNA, whereas it did not affect the SNA-AP relationship (peripheral arc). SNA was almost doubled [from 63 +/- 15 to 118 +/- 14 arbitrary units (au), P < 0.05] at the CSP level of 93 +/- 8 mmHg, and AP was increased approximately 50% by muscle stretch. When the baroreflex negative feedback loop was closed, muscle stretch increased SNA from 63 +/- 15 to 81 +/- 21 au (P < 0.05) and AP from 93 +/- 8 to 109 +/- 12 mmHg (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the muscle mechanoreflex resets the neural arc to a higher SNA, which moves the operating point towards a higher SNA and AP under baroreflex closed-loop conditions. Analysis of the baroreflex equilibrium diagram indicated that changes in the neural arc induced by the muscle mechanoreflex might compensate for pressure falls resulting from exercise-induced vasodilatation.
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ABSTRACT: AIMS: Cilnidipine is a unique Ca(2+) channel blocker that inhibits both L-type and N-type Ca(2+) channels. The present study aimed to assess the effects of intravenous cilnidipine on sympathetic outflow and sympathetic arterial pressure (AP) and heart rate (HR) regulations. MAIN METHODS: Carotid sinus baroreceptor regions were isolated from the systemic circulation in anesthetized and vagotomized Wistar Kyoto rats. Changes in efferent sympathetic nerve activity (SNA), AP and HR in response to a stepwise input of carotid sinus pressure were examined before and during intravenous cilnidipine administration (30 μg/kg bolus + 100 μg kg(-1)h(-1) infusion, n = 6). KEY FINDINGS: Cilnidipine significantly reduced the AP response range (from 68.0 ± 10.2 to 34.6 ± 4.1 mmHg, P = 0.007) but did not affect the SNA response range (from 90.4 ± 10.3 to 84.7 ± 9.5%, P = 0.297) or the HR response range (from 50.4 ± 10.1 to 48.1 ± 6.2 beats/min, P = 0.719). SIGNIFICANCE: Cilnidipine, at a depressor dose used in the present study, does not acutely suppress sympathetic outflow from the central nervous system. Also, it spared the sympathetic HR response, suggesting that N-type Ca(2+) channel blocking action at the cardiac sympathetic nerve endings may be a modest one.Life sciences 05/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.lfs.2013.05.004 · 2.56 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: It has been established that vagal nerve stimulation (VNS) benefits patients and/or animals with heart failure. However, the impact of VNS on sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) remains unknown. In this study, we investigated how vagal afferent stimulation (AVNS) impacts baroreflex control of SNA. In 12 anesthetized Sprague–Dawley rats, we controlled the pressure in isolated bilateral carotid sinuses (CSP), and measured splanchnic SNA and arterial pressure (AP). Under a constant CSP, increasing the voltage of AVNS dose dependently decreased SNA and AP. The averaged maximal inhibition of SNA was -28.0 ± 10.3%. To evaluate the dynamic impacts of AVNS on SNA, we performed random AVNS using binary white noise sequences, and identified the transfer function from AVNS to SNA and that from SNA to AP. We also identified transfer functions of the native baroreflex from CSP to SNA (neural arc) and from SNA to AP (peripheral arc). The transfer function from AVNS to SNA strikingly resembled the baroreflex neural arc and the transfer functions of SNA to AP were indistinguishable whether we perturbed ANVS or CSP, indicating that they likely share common central and peripheral neural mechanisms. To examine the impact of AVNS on baroreflex, we changed CSP stepwise and measured SNA and AP responses with or without AVNS. AVNS resets the sigmoidal neural arc downward, but did not affect the linear peripheral arc. In conclusion, AVNS resets the baroreflex neural arc and induces sympathoinhibition in the same manner as the control of SNA and AP by the native baroreflex.09/2014; 2(9). DOI:10.14814/phy2.12136