Supplemental oxygen does not reduce postoperative nausea and vomiting after thyroidectomy
ABSTRACT Supplemental intra-operative oxygen 80% halves the incidence of nausea and vomiting after open and laparoscopic abdominal surgery, perhaps by ameliorating intestinal ischaemia associated with abdominal surgery. It is unlikely that thyroid surgery compromises intestinal perfusion. We therefore tested the hypothesis that supplemental perioperative oxygen does not reduce the risk of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) after thyroidectomy.
One hundred and fifty patients undergoing thyroidectomy were given sevoflurane anaesthesia. After induction, patients were randomly assigned to the following treatments: (i). 30% oxygen, (ii). 80% oxygen, or (iii). 30% oxygen with droperidol 0.625 mg.
The overall incidence of nausea during the first 24 h after surgery was 48% in the patients given oxygen 30%, 46% in those given oxygen 80%, and 22% in those given droperidol (P=0.004). There were no significant differences between the oxygen 30% and 80% groups in incidence or severity of PONV, the need for rescue antiemetics, or patient satisfaction. Droperidol significantly shortened the time to first meal.
Supplemental oxygen was ineffective in preventing nausea and vomiting after thyroidectomy, but droperidol reduced the incidence.
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ABSTRACT: Náuseas e vômitos pós-operatórios são comuns e podem ser evitados. Complicações provenientes deste problema acarretam aumento de morbi-mortalidade. Foi realizada revisão de literatura no MEDLINE, com foco em estudos clínicos controlados. A fisiopatologia é complexa, com várias vias centrais aferentes e eferentes, e seu entendimento ajuda na escolha das medicações. Fatores de risco são apresentados, com escala de estratificação de chance para desenvolvimento de náuseas e vômitos pósoperatórios. Algoritmo para abordagem de pacientes com maior risco foi elaborado e estratifica nível de prevenção/tratamento a ser recebido, de modo a evitar uso excessivo de drogas e seus paraefeitos. Náuseas e vômitos pós-operatórios devem ser prevenidos, pois acarretam complicações e desconforto nos pacientes. Abordagem sistemática com análise de fatores de risco per-operatórios e prescrição de medicações podem ser eficazes para sua prevenção.Revista Brasileira de Terapia Intensiva 03/2009; 21(1):89-95. DOI:10.1590/S0103-507X2009000100013
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ABSTRACT: Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) occurs in up to 63-84% of patients after thyroid surgery. This study aims to assess the effects of using a capsicum plaster to reduce PONV after thyroid surgery at either the Chinese acupuncture point (acupoint) Pericardium 6 (P6) or Korean hand acupuncture point K-D2. One-hundred eighty-four patients who underwent thyroid surgery were randomized in four groups (n = 46 each): control group = inactive tape at P6 acupoints and on both shoulders as a nonacupoint; P6 group = capsicum plaster at P6 points and inactive tape on both shoulders; K-D2 group = capsicum plaster at K-D2 acupoints and inactive tape on both shoulders; Sham group = capsicum plaster on both shoulders and inactive tape at P6 acupoints. The capsicum plaster was applied before the induction of anesthesia and removed at 8 hr after surgery. The incidence and severity of nausea and vomiting and the need for rescue antiemetics were decreased in the patients in the P6 and K-D2 groups compared to the patients in the control and sham groups (P < 0.001). The patients in the P6 and K-D2 groups also reported that they were more satisfied (P < 0.05). We conclude that the capsicum plaster at the P6 and K-D2 acupoint was a promising antiemetic method for the patients undergoing thyroid surgery.Korean journal of anesthesiology 12/2013; 65(6):539-43. DOI:10.4097/kjae.2013.65.6.539
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ABSTRACT: Background. Pure oxygen ventilation during anaesthesia is debatable, as it may lead to development of atelectasis. Rationale of the study was to demonstrate the harmlessness of ventilation with pure oxygen. Methods. This is a single-centre, one-department observational trial. Prospectively collected routine-data of 76,784 patients undergoing general, gynaecological, orthopaedic, and vascular surgery during 1995–2009 were retrospectively analysed. Postoperative hypoxia, unplanned ICU-admission, surgical site infection (SSI), postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV), and hospital mortality were continuously recorded. During 1996 the anaesthetic ventilation for all patients was changed from 30% oxygen plus 70% nitrous oxide to 100% oxygen in low-flow mode. Therefore, in order to minimize the potential of confounding due to a variety of treatments being used, we directly compared years 1995 (30% oxygen) and 1997 (100%), whereas the period 1998 to 2009 is simply described. Results. Comparing 1995 to 1997 pure oxygen ventilation led to a decreased incidence of postoperative hypoxic events (4.3 to 3.0%; p < 0.0001) and hospital mortality (2.1 to 1.6%; p = 0.088) as well as SSI (8.0 to 5.0%; p < 0.0001) and PONV (21.6 to 17.5%; p < 0.0001). There was no effect on unplanned ICU-admission (1.1 to 0.9; p = 0.18). Conclusions. The observed effects may be partly due to pure oxygen ventilation, abandonment of nitrous oxide, and application of low-flow anesthesia. Pure oxygen ventilation during general anaesthesia is harmless, as long as certain standards are adhered to. It makes anaesthesia simpler and safer and may reduce clinical morbidity, such as postoperative hypoxia and surgical site infection.10/2014; 2:e613. DOI:10.7717/peerj.613