Gamma-secretase activity is present in rafts but is not cholesterol-dependent.
ABSTRACT Cholesterol has been claimed to be involved in the generation and/or accumulation of amyloid beta protein (Abeta). However, the underlying molecular mechanisms have not been fully elucidated yet. Here, we have investigated the effect of membrane cholesterol content on gamma-secretase activity using Chinese hamster ovary cells stably expressing beta-amyloid precursor protein (APP) and either wild-type or N141I mutant-type presenilin 2. Cholesterol was acutely depleted from the isolated membrane by methyl-beta-cyclodextrin, and Abeta production was assessed in a cell-free assay system. Reduced cholesterol did not significantly alter the amounts of Abeta produced by either total cell membranes or cholesterol-rich low-density membrane domains. Even its extremely low levels in the latter domains did not affect Abeta production. This indicates that the membrane cholesterol content does not directly modulate the activity of gamma-secretase. To ascertain that gamma-secretase resides in cholesterol-rich membrane domains, low-density membrane domains were further fractionated with BCtheta (biotinylated theta-toxin nicked with subtilisin Carlsberg protease), which has recently been shown to bind selectively to rafts of intact cells. The membrane domains purified with BCtheta did indeed produce Abeta. These observations indicate that the gamma-cleavage required for generating Abeta occurs in rafts, but its activity is virtually cholesterol-independent.
- SourceAvailable from: onlinelibrary.wiley.com[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The plasma membrane of eukaryotic cells participates in signal transduction and many other cellular events to maintain the physiological state of cells. In recent decades, much attention has been paid to membrane microdomains, called lipid rafts or membrane rafts, as signaling platforms in the plasma membrane. Lipid rafts are lateral lipid clusters enriched in cholesterol and sphingolipids in which particular molecules are concentrated and participate in membrane-mediated signaling events. Recent studies have shown a close relationship between lipid rafts and the age-associated decline and dysregulation of cellular signaling pathways, such as T-cell receptor signaling and cellular senescence-related signaling. Lipid rafts have also been implicated in senile diseases and in lifestyle-related diseases whose incidences increase with age.Geriatrics & Gerontology International 07/2010; 10 Suppl 1:S41-52.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Recently it has become clear that exposure to xenobiotics may result in various forms of cell death; not only passive cell deaths like necrosis, or programmed cell deaths such as apoptosis, but also regulated necrosis, autophagy, senescence, or mitotic catastrophe. Complex cell signaling networks influence the processing of cell death. Furthermore, recent research has revealed early complex molecular interactions between organelles prior to the final triggering of cell death. The plasma membrane may play an important role in the early cell death signaling events. Regarding this latter aspect, drugs and environmental pollutants have been reported to affect plasma membrane characteristics which may further affect cell fate. Changes in membrane fluidity or in composition and function of specialized membrane microdomains (plasma membrane remodeling) have been proven to be involved in the regulation of many important physiological signaling pathways, including cell death. Furthermore, it has been suggested that a crosstalk between chemical-induced cellular membrane effects and other organelles may be of vital importance to explain the final outcome of chemical exposure. Here, we review the effects of plasma membrane remodeling on cell survival and cell death; we describe how the cell signaling pathways activated by changes in plasma membrane characteristics may influence cell fate. Since plasma membrane function plays an important role in the regulation of a number of cellular responses, it has been implicated in the development or progress of several diseases. A better knowledge of the effects of various chemicals on plasma membrane remodeling may be important for understanding the pathogenesis of major diseases, and may assist in developing new therapeutic strategies.Toxicology 12/2012; · 4.02 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Presenilin-1 (PS1) is the catalytic component of the γ-secretase complex. In this study, we explore if PS1 participates in the processing of the cholinergic acetylcholinesterase (AChE). The major AChE variant expressed in the brain is a tetramer (G4) bound to a proline-rich membrane anchor (PRiMA). Overexpression of the transmembrane PRiMA protein in Chinese hamster ovary cells expressing AChE and treated with the γ-secretase inhibitor N-[N-(3,5-difluorophenacetyl)-l-alanyl]-S-phenylglycine t-butyl ester have enabled us to study whether, through its γ-secretase activity, PS1 participates in the processing of PRiMA-linked AChE. γ-Secretase inhibition led to a notable increase in the level of PRiMA-linked AChE, suggesting that γ-secretase is involved in the cleavage of PRiMA. We demonstrate that cleavage of PRiMA by γ-secretase results in a C-terminal PRiMA fragment. Immunofluorescence labeling allowed us to identify this PRiMA fragment in the nucleus. Moreover, we have determined changes in the proportion of the raft-residing AChE-PRiMA in a PS1 conditional knockout mouse. Our results are of interest as both enzymes have therapeutic relevance for Alzheimer's disease.Neurobiology of aging 02/2014; · 5.94 Impact Factor