Cocoa Has More Phenolic Phytochemicals and a Higher Antioxidant Capacity than Teas and Red Wine

Cornell University, Итак, New York, United States
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry (Impact Factor: 2.91). 12/2003; 51(25):7292-5. DOI: 10.1021/jf0344385
Source: PubMed


Black tea, green tea, red wine, and cocoa are high in phenolic phytochemicals, among which theaflavin, epigallocatechin gallate, resveratrol, and procyanidin, respectively, have been extensively investigated due to their possible role as chemopreventive agents based on their antioxidant capacities. The present study compared the phenolic and flavonoid contents and total antioxidant capacities of cocoa, black tea, green tea, and red wine. Cocoa contained much higher levels of total phenolics (611 mg of gallic acid equivalents, GAE) and flavonoids (564 mg of epicatechin equivalents, ECE) per serving than black tea (124 mg of GAE and 34 mg of ECE, respectively), green tea (165 mg of GAE and 47 mg of ECE), and red wine (340 mg of GAE and 163 mg of ECE). Total antioxidant activities were measured using the 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assays and are expressed as vitamin C equivalent antioxidant capacities (VCEACs). Cocoa exhibited the highest antioxidant activity among the samples in ABTS and DPPH assays, with VCEACs of 1128 and 836 mg/serving, respectively. The relative total antioxidant capacities of the samples in both assays were as follows in decreasing order: cocoa > red wine > green tea > black tea. The total antioxidant capacities from ABTS and DPPH assays were highly correlated with phenolic content (r2 = 0.981 and 0.967, respectively) and flavonoid content (r2 = 0.949 and 0.915). These results suggest that cocoa is more beneficial to health than teas and red wine in terms of its higher antioxidant capacity.

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Available from: Chang Yong Lee, Oct 05, 2015
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    • "Furthermore, it has been demonstrated that many phenolic compounds play important roles in preventing certain human diseases, such as osteoporosis, cancers, and cardiovascular diseases (Kaume, Gbur, DiBrezzo, Howards, & Devareddy, 2014; Morton, Caccetta, Puddey, & Croft, 2000; Oliveras-López, Berná, Jurado-Ruiz, López-García de la Serrana, & Martín, 2014). Black tea, green tea, red wine and cocoa are good sources of phenolics as they are rich in phenolic phytochemicals (Lee, Kim, Lee, & Lee, 2003). Protocatechuic acid is a hydroxybenzoic acid that can be found in many foods such as olives, flaxseed, and wine (Minussi et al., 2003; Van Hoed, 2010). "
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the interactions between caseins and phenolic acids, such as the ones present in chocolate, casein was incubated with protocatechuic acid or p-coumaric acid at 55°C. In addition, casein was isolated from chocolate and the phenolic compounds within these caseins were quantified. Electrophoresis results revealed that casein-phenolic interactions were induced by incubation; minor aggregation of casein subunits was observed after incubation of casein with protocatechuic acid. Minor aggregation of casein isolated from milk chocolate was also observed. In vitro hydrolysis of casein control, casein-protocatechuic acid, casein-p-coumaric acid, caseins isolated from milk chocolate and white chocolate using trypsin showed degree of hydrolysis of 19.3, 18.6, 17.7, 10.4 and 17.8% respectively. The presence of protocatechuic acid and p-coumaric acid in the model system and the presence of phenolic compounds in milk chocolate, in addition to the structural changes occurring during processing, affected the peptide profiles of casein hydrolysates.
    Food Research International 05/2015; 74. DOI:10.1016/j.foodres.2015.05.006 · 2.82 Impact Factor
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    • "Free radicals are highly reactive unstable chemical compounds, containing an unpaired electron; the presence of unpaired electrons usually confers a considerable degree of reactivity cause damage to other molecules by extracting electrons from them in order to reach a stable form (Lee et al., 2003; Valko et al., 2007). These reactive species can be classified into; reactive oxygen species (ROS) namely (oxygen-centered radicals) such as superoxide anion ( "
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    ABSTRACT: Cancer prevention and treatment have attracted increasing interest. Leaves of Tectona grandis Linn. (Verbenaceae) are widely used in the folklore to treat various types of diseases. This study characterizes the antioxidant activity, total phenolic content (TPC) and cytotoxic activity of different methanolic extracts as well as the derived subfractions (Pet. ether; CHCl3, EtOAc and n-BuOH) from the 90% methanolic extract of T. grandis. The antioxidant activity was evaluated via three assays; 1,1'-diphenyl-2-picraylhydrazyl free radical (DPPH), phosphomolybdenum method (total antioxidant capacity; TAC and reducing power antioxidant assay (RPAA). Due to the high antioxidant activity of the tested fractions, their cytotoxic activity was evaluated via using preliminary brine shrimp lethality test and toward liver cancer cell line; HepG2 using Sulphorhodamine-B assay. The DPPH activity was ranged from (15.78, 10.63 and 19.58 μg/ml); TAC was ranged from (477.58, 589.50 and 400.30; mg AAE /g extract); RPAA (OD value) was ranged from (0.699, 0.783 and 0.423; 200 mg/ml) and TPC was ranged from (208.32, 400.56 and 295.67; mg GAE/g extract) all respectively for defatted 90% methanol, n-BuOH and EtOAc fractions. A positive linear relationship existed between antioxidant activity and TPC (all R2 values > 0.91). The mortality of brine shrimp larvae (LC50) against different dosage of defatted 90% methanol, n-BuOH and EtOAc respectively was (100, 15.84 and 125.89). The HepG2 results showed that defatted 90% MeOH and n-BuOH fractions have cytotoxic activity with IC50 ≤ 20μg/ml which falls within the American Cancer Institute criteria. It was concluded that T. grandis extracts possess a powerful antioxidant and cytotoxic activities.
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    • "In term of the mechanisms of anti-carcinogenesis that might be modulated by MEMM, several pathways could be suggested based on the flavonoids detected in MEMM. Flavonoids are important in the impediment of various chronic maladies involving oxidative stress and demonstrated antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities via the in vivo and in vitro models (Lee et al. 2003; Middleton et al. 2000; Robak and Gryglewski, 1988; Calixto et al. 2003; 2004). Moreover, flavonoids also regulated the expression of pro-inflammatory genes (i.e. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Melastoma malabathricum L. Smith (family Melastomaceae) is a shrub that has been used by the Malay practitioners of traditional medicine to treat various types of ailments. The present study aimed to determine the chemopreventive activity of methanol extract of M. malabathricum leaves (MEMM) using the standard 7,12-dimethylbenz(α)anthracene (DMBA)/croton oil-induced mouse skin carcinogenesis model. Materials and methods: In the initiation phase, the mice received a single dose of 100µl/100 µg DMBA (group I-V) or 100µl acetone (group VI) topically on the dorsal shaved skin area followed by the promotion phase involving treatment with the respective test solutions (100 µl of acetone, 10 mg/kg curcumin or MEMM (30, 100 and 300mg/kg)) for 30 min followed by the topical application of tumour promoter (100µl croton oil). Tumors were examined weekly and the experiment lasted for 15 weeks. Results: MEMM and curcumin significantly (p<0.05) reduced the tumour burden, tumour incidence and tumour volume, which were further supported by the histopathological findings. Conclusion: MEMM demonstrated chemoprevention possibly via its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, and the action of flavonoids like quercitrin.
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