Cocoa Has More Phenolic Phytochemicals and a Higher Antioxidant Capacity than Teas and Red Wine

Cornell University, Итак, New York, United States
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry (Impact Factor: 2.91). 12/2003; 51(25):7292-5. DOI: 10.1021/jf0344385
Source: PubMed


Black tea, green tea, red wine, and cocoa are high in phenolic phytochemicals, among which theaflavin, epigallocatechin gallate, resveratrol, and procyanidin, respectively, have been extensively investigated due to their possible role as chemopreventive agents based on their antioxidant capacities. The present study compared the phenolic and flavonoid contents and total antioxidant capacities of cocoa, black tea, green tea, and red wine. Cocoa contained much higher levels of total phenolics (611 mg of gallic acid equivalents, GAE) and flavonoids (564 mg of epicatechin equivalents, ECE) per serving than black tea (124 mg of GAE and 34 mg of ECE, respectively), green tea (165 mg of GAE and 47 mg of ECE), and red wine (340 mg of GAE and 163 mg of ECE). Total antioxidant activities were measured using the 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assays and are expressed as vitamin C equivalent antioxidant capacities (VCEACs). Cocoa exhibited the highest antioxidant activity among the samples in ABTS and DPPH assays, with VCEACs of 1128 and 836 mg/serving, respectively. The relative total antioxidant capacities of the samples in both assays were as follows in decreasing order: cocoa > red wine > green tea > black tea. The total antioxidant capacities from ABTS and DPPH assays were highly correlated with phenolic content (r2 = 0.981 and 0.967, respectively) and flavonoid content (r2 = 0.949 and 0.915). These results suggest that cocoa is more beneficial to health than teas and red wine in terms of its higher antioxidant capacity.

Download full-text


Available from: Chang Yong Lee,
63 Reads
    • "Consistency in cocoa sources and development of new breeds of cocoa are of high importance due to cocoa's many health benefits. It has been reported that cocoa extracts contains higher levels of antioxidants, including phenolics and Flavan-3-ols, than even green tea or red wine [3]. The health benefits of these cocoa components have been extensively documents. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: It is currently thought that the lackluster performance of translational paradigms in the prevention of age-related cognitive deteriorative disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), may be due to the inadequacy of the prevailing approach of targeting only a single mechanism. Age-related cognitive deterioration and certain neurodegenerative disorders, including AD, are characterized by complex relationships between interrelated biological phenotypes. Thus, alternative strategies that simultaneously target multiple underlying mechanisms may represent a more effective approach to prevention, which is a strategic priority of the National Alzheimer's Project Act and the National Institute on Aging. In this review article, we discuss recent strategies designed to clarify the mechanisms by which certain brain-bioavailable, bioactive polyphenols, in particular, flavan-3-ols also known as flavanols, which are highly represented in cocoa extracts, may beneficially influence cognitive deterioration, such as in AD, while promoting healthy brain aging. However, we note that key issues to improve consistency and reproducibility in the development of cocoa extracts as a potential future therapeutic agent requires a better understanding of the cocoa extract sources, their processing, and more standardized testing including brain bioavailability of bioactive metabolites and brain target engagement studies. The ultimate goal of this review is to provide recommendations for future developments of cocoa extracts as a therapeutic agent in AD.
    Journal of Alzheimer's disease: JAD 09/2015; 48(4). DOI:10.3233/JAD-150536 · 4.15 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "The phenolic content values of test substances and total antioxidant activity of the sets of samples correlate very well for all the methods used (Paixao et al., 2007). The antioxidant properties of simple polyphenols have been largely studied by means of in vitro DPPH scavenging tests (Lee et al., 2003; Othman et al., 2007) and many studies have confirmed the protective action of cocoa procyanidins and flavanols using in vitro cellular models (Kenny et al., 2004; Zhu et al., 2005). Moreover, other benign properties related to the bioactivity of phenolics from cocoa were largely studied. "

    AFRICAN JOURNAL OF BIOTECHNOLOGY 09/2015; 14(36):2672-2682. DOI:10.5897/AJB2015.14715 · 0.57 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "Furthermore, it has been demonstrated that many phenolic compounds play important roles in preventing certain human diseases, such as osteoporosis, cancers, and cardiovascular diseases (Kaume, Gbur, DiBrezzo, Howards, & Devareddy, 2014; Morton, Caccetta, Puddey, & Croft, 2000; Oliveras-López, Berná, Jurado-Ruiz, López-García de la Serrana, & Martín, 2014). Black tea, green tea, red wine and cocoa are good sources of phenolics as they are rich in phenolic phytochemicals (Lee, Kim, Lee, & Lee, 2003). Protocatechuic acid is a hydroxybenzoic acid that can be found in many foods such as olives, flaxseed, and wine (Minussi et al., 2003; Van Hoed, 2010). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To investigate the interactions between caseins and phenolic acids, such as the ones present in chocolate, casein was incubated with protocatechuic acid or p-coumaric acid at 55°C. In addition, casein was isolated from chocolate and the phenolic compounds within these caseins were quantified. Electrophoresis results revealed that casein-phenolic interactions were induced by incubation; minor aggregation of casein subunits was observed after incubation of casein with protocatechuic acid. Minor aggregation of casein isolated from milk chocolate was also observed. In vitro hydrolysis of casein control, casein-protocatechuic acid, casein-p-coumaric acid, caseins isolated from milk chocolate and white chocolate using trypsin showed degree of hydrolysis of 19.3, 18.6, 17.7, 10.4 and 17.8% respectively. The presence of protocatechuic acid and p-coumaric acid in the model system and the presence of phenolic compounds in milk chocolate, in addition to the structural changes occurring during processing, affected the peptide profiles of casein hydrolysates.
    Food Research International 05/2015; 74. DOI:10.1016/j.foodres.2015.05.006 · 2.82 Impact Factor
Show more