Growth hormone response to guanfacine in boys with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a preliminary study.
ABSTRACT This preliminary study evaluated a method for assessing central noradrenergic function in children via the growth hormone response to a single dose of the alpha-2 adrenergic receptor agonist guanfacine and examined whether this measure distinguishes between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) boys with and without reading disabilities (RD).
Plasma growth hormone was assessed before and after the oral administration of guanfacine and placebo in boys with ADHD who were divided into subgroups based on the presence (n = 3) or absence (n = 5) of RD.
Guanfacine and placebo conditions did not differ at baseline, but peak growth hormone was significantly higher following guanfacine. The increase in growth hormone following guanfacine was significantly greater in boys without RD as compared to those with RD, with no overlap between the groups.
Consistent with findings using peripheral measures of noradrenergic function, these preliminary data suggest that ADHD boys with and without RD may differ in central noradrenergic function.
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ABSTRACT: Due to their well-established efficacy and safety, stimulants are the drugs of first choice if medication for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is required. Nevertheless, for some individuals other, non-stimulant treatments are needed for several reasons. If so, atomoxetine is recommended as a second-line treatment. In addition, several tricyclic antidepressants, such as desipramine or imipramine, as well as alpha-2 agonists, especially clonidine or bupropion, might be efficient in treating ADHD, in particular in specific co-morbid conditions. Despite the fact that non-stimulant treatments in ADHD are usually well-tolerated with side effects being mostly moderate and transient, special safety aspects and precautions, specific for each drug, have to be considered whenever a non-stimulant treatment is chosen. This review focuses on the tolerability, occurrence of adverse events, precautions required to prevent severe adverse events, and essential pharmacological interaction in the treatment of ADHD symptoms by non-stimulants.Expert Opinion on Drug Safety 04/2005; 4(2):311-21. DOI:10.1517/14740322.214.171.1241 · 2.74 Impact Factor