Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of chronic demyelinating polyneuroapthy
Available from: PubMed Central
- "Fasciculations were present in the proximal arms and legs. The right tibial motor conduction velocity was in a demyelinating range and that for the right peroneal nerve was borderline . There was a meaningful difference in conduction velocities between the right and left legs . "
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ABSTRACT: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a rapidly progressive, fatal neurodegenerative disorder for which there is no effective treatment. The diagnosis is dependent on the clinical presentation and consistent electrodiagnostic studies. Typically, there is a combination of upper and lower motor neuron signs as well as electrodiagnostic studies indicative of diffuse motor axonal injury. The presentation of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, however, may be variable. At the same time, the diagnosis is essential for patient prognosis and management. It is therefore important to appreciate the range of possible presentations of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.
We present the case of a 57-year-old Caucasian man with pathological findings on postmortem examination consistent with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis but atypical clinical and electrodiagnostic features. He died after a rapid course of progressive weakness. The patient did not respond to immunosuppressive therapy.
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis should be considered in patients with a rapidly progressive, unexplained neuropathic process. This should be true even if there are atypical clinical and electrodiagnostic findings. Absence of response to therapy and the development of upper motor neuron signs should reinforce the possibility that amyotrophic lateral sclerosis may be present. Since amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a fatal illness, however, the possibility of this disease in patients with atypical clinical features should not diminish the need for a thorough diagnostic evaluation and treatment trials.
Journal of Medical Case Reports 11/2011; 5:538. DOI:10.1186/1752-1947-5-538
Available from: Vera Bril
- "Subsequently, a meta-analysis concluded that IVIg improved disability in patients with CIDP for at least 2–6 weeks compared with placebo, and had similar efficacy to plasma exchange and oral prednisolone . Furthermore, IVIg was being used in several countries to treat patients with CIDP (even though the labelling for IVIg did not include CIDP as an indication), and IVIg was recommended as a first-line treatment option for CIDP in clinical practice guidelines [18–20]. Because of the lack of equipoise, investigators were unwilling to expose patients to long-term placebo treatment. "
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ABSTRACT: Clinical equipoise is widely accepted as the basis of ethics in clinical research and requires investigators to be uncertain of the relative therapeutic merits of trial comparators. When clinical equipoise is in question, innovative trial designs are needed to reduce ethical tension while satisfying regulators' requirements. We report a novel response-conditional crossover study design used in a Phase 3, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial of intravenous 10% caprylate-chromatography purified immunoglobulin for chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy. During the initial 24-week period, patients crossed over to the alternative treatment at the first sign of deterioration or if they failed to improve or were unable to maintain improvement at any time after 6 weeks. This trial design addressed concerns about lack of equipoise raised by physicians interested in trial participation and proved acceptable to regulatory authorities. The trial design may be applicable to other studies where clinical equipoise is in question.
Journal of Neurology 08/2011; 259(2):348-52. DOI:10.1007/s00415-011-6200-0 · 3.38 Impact Factor
Available from: brain.oxfordjournals.org
- "). We did not compare this for newer sets (Hughes et al., 2001; Saperstein et al., 2001; Nicolas et al., 2002; Berger et al., 2003; Magda et al., 2003). Future validation studies are required to determine whether sets consisting of a combination of the proposed criteria improve identification of patients with CIDP compared with older as well as newer sets. "
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ABSTRACT: The diagnosis of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) is based on clinical and laboratory results and on features of demyelination found in nerve conduction studies. The criteria that are currently used to reveal demyelinative slowing in CIDP have several limitations. These criteria were only determined in lower arm and lower leg nerve segments, were not defined with respect to nerve temperature, and the relationship with distal compound muscle action potential (CMAP) amplitudes is unclear. The aim of our study was to determine criteria for demyelinative slowing for lower arm and leg segments as well as for upper arm and shoulder segments at a temperature of 37 degrees C, and to assess whether criteria have to be modified when the distal CMAP is decreased. Included were 73 patients with lower motor neuron disease (LMND), 45 patients with CIDP and 36 healthy controls. The arms and legs were warmed in water at 37 degrees C for at least 30 min prior to an investigation and thereafter kept warm with infrared heaters. The proposed criteria for demyelinative slowing were based on the maximum conduction slowing that may occur as a consequence of axonal degeneration and consisted of the upper boundary (99%) or the lower boundary (1%) of conduction values in LMND. In LMND, the maximum conduction slowing was different for arm and leg nerves and for segments within the arm nerves. Moreover, distal motor latency and motor conduction velocity were slower in nerves with distal CMAP amplitudes below 1 mV than in nerves with distal CMAP amplitudes above 1 mV. For these reasons, separate criteria were proposed for arm nerves, for leg nerves and for different segments within arm nerves, and more stringent criteria were proposed for distal motor latency and motor conduction velocity when the distal CMAP amplitude was below 1 mV. The diagnostic yield in CIDP was assessed using the nerve, and not the patient, as the unit of measurement. Thus, whether demyelinative slowing was present was determined for each nerve. Compared with other criteria, our criteria increased the specificity without affecting sensitivity. We conclude that the present criteria, based on the maximum slowing that may occur as a result of axonal degeneration, allow more accurate detection of demyelinative slowing in CIDP compared with other criteria. It should be emphasized that the proposed criteria can only be applied if the method of warming in water at 37 degrees C for at least 30 min is adopted.
Brain 05/2005; 128(Pt 4):880-91. DOI:10.1093/brain/awh375 · 9.20 Impact Factor
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