Barrier-to-Autointegration Factor BAF Binds p55 Gag and Matrix and Is a Host Component of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Virions

Department of Cell Biology, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA.
Journal of Virology (Impact Factor: 4.44). 01/2004; 77(24):13084-92. DOI: 10.1128/JVI.77.24.13084-13092.2003
Source: PubMed


Barrier-to-autointegration factor (BAF) is a conserved human chromatin protein exploited by retroviruses. Previous investigators showed that BAF binds double-stranded DNA nonspecifically and is a host component of preintegration complexes (PICs) isolated from cells infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) or Moloney murine leukemia virus. BAF protects PIC structure and stimulates the integration of salt-stripped PICs into target DNA in vitro. PICs are thought to acquire BAF from the cytoplasm during infection. However, we identified two human tissues (of 16 tested) in which BAF mRNA was not detected: thymus and peripheral blood leukocytes, which are enriched in CD4(+) T lymphocytes and macrophage precursors, respectively. BAF protein was detected in activated but not resting CD4(+) T lymphocytes; thus, if BAF were essential for PIC function, we hypothesized that virions might "bring their own BAF." Supporting this model, BAF copurified with HIV-1 virions that were digested with subtilisin to remove microvesicle contaminants, and BAF was present in approximately zero to three copies per virion. In three independent assays, BAF bound directly to both p55 Gag (the structural precursor of HIV-1 virions) and its cleaved product, matrix. Using lysates from cells overexpressing Gag, endogenous BAF and Gag were coimmunoprecipitated by antibodies against Gag. Purified recombinant BAF had low micromolar affinities (1.1 to 1.4 micro M) for recombinant Gag and matrix. We conclude that BAF is present at low levels in incoming virions, in addition to being acquired from the cytoplasm of newly infected cells. We further conclude that BAF might contribute to the assembly or activity of HIV-1 PICs through direct binding to matrix, as well as DNA.

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    • "We conclude that BAF and MA do not directly interact. Then how might the previously reported interactions [15] be explained? BAF and MA both bind DNA and we propose the protein preparations contained sufficient DNA to allow an apparent interaction between BAF and MA through DNA binding. "
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    ABSTRACT: Barrier-to-autointegration factor is a cellular protein that protects retroviral DNA from autointegration. Its cellular role is not well understood, but genetic studies show that it is essential and depletion or knockout results in lethal nuclear defects. In addition to binding DNA, BAF interacts with the LEM domain, a domain shared among a family of lamin-associated polypeptides. BAF has also been reported to interact with several other viral and cellular proteins suggesting that these interactions may be functionally relevant. We find that, contrary to previous reports, BAF does not interact with HIV-1 MA, cone-rod homeobox (Crx) or MAN1-C. The reported interactions can be explained by indirect association through DNA binding and are unlikely to be biologically relevant. A mutation that causes a premature aging syndrome lies on the previously reported MAN1-C binding surface of BAF. The absence of direct binding of BAF to MAN1-C eliminates disruption of this interaction as the cause of the premature aging phenotype.
    PLoS ONE 09/2011; 6(9):e25123. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0025123 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    • "We also found that the expression of several genes such as BANF1, BTRC, CD209, APOBEC3F, and TAT-SF1 increased in HD-HIV cells. BANF1 is known for its ability to protect retroviruses from intra-molecular integration and there by promoting intermolecular integration into the host cell genome [42]. BTRC interacts with HIV-1 viral protein U (Vpu) and connects CD4 to the proteolytic machinery [43]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Tissue resident mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent, self-renewing cells known for their differentiation potential into cells of mesenchymal lineage. The ability of single cell clones isolated from adipose tissue resident MSCs (ASCs) to differentiate into cells of hematopoietic lineage has been previously demonstrated. In the present study, we investigated if the hematopoietic differentiated (HD) cells derived from ASCs could productively be infected with HIV-1. HD cells were generated by differentiating clonally expanded cultures of adherent subsets of ASCs (CD90+, CD105+, CD45-, and CD34-). Transcriptome analysis revealed that HD cells acquire a number of elements that increase their susceptibility for HIV-1 infection, including HIV-1 receptor/co-receptor and other key cellular cofactors. HIV-1 infected HD cells (HD-HIV) showed elevated p24 protein and gag and tat gene expression, implying a high and productive infection. HD-HIV cells showed decreased CD4, but significant increase in the expression of CCR5, CXCR4, Nef-associated factor HCK, and Vpu-associated factor BTRC. HIV-1 restricting factors like APOBEC3F and TRIM5 also showed up regulation. HIV-1 infection increased apoptosis and cell cycle regulatory genes in HD cells. Although undifferentiated ASCs failed to show productive infection, HIV-1 exposure increased the expression of several hematopoietic lineage associated genes such as c-Kit, MMD2, and IL-10. Considering the presence of profuse amounts of ASCs in different tissues, these findings suggest the possible role that could be played by HD cells derived from ASCs in HIV-1 infection. The undifferentiated ASCs were non-permissive to HIV-1 infection; however, HIV-1 exposure increased the expression of some hematopoietic lineage related genes. The findings relate the importance of ASCs in HIV-1 research and facilitate the understanding of the disease process and management strategies.
    Retrovirology 01/2011; 8(1):3. DOI:10.1186/1742-4690-8-3 · 4.19 Impact Factor
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    • "LEDGF/p75 (single-peptide “hit”; Table 1) is a transcription factor that can bind human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) integrase directly, and contributes significantly to the efficiency and location of HIV-1 integration sites in human chromosomes [79]. BAF binds the HIV-1 matrix and Gag proteins directly, and is a component of HIV-1 virions [80]. BAF and emerin were both reported to contribute significantly to the efficiency of HIV-1 integration into primary human macrophages [33]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Nuclear lamin filaments and associated proteins form a nucleoskeletal ("lamina") network required for transcription, replication, chromatin organization and epigenetic regulation in metazoans. Lamina defects cause human disease ("laminopathies") and are linked to aging. Barrier-to-autointegration factor (BAF) is a mobile and essential component of the nuclear lamina that binds directly to histones, lamins and LEM-domain proteins, including the inner nuclear membrane protein emerin, and has roles in chromatin structure, mitosis and gene regulation. To understand BAF's mechanisms of action, BAF associated proteins were affinity-purified from HeLa cell nuclear lysates using BAF-conjugated beads, and identified by tandem mass spectrometry or independently identified and quantified using the iTRAQ method. We recovered A- and B-type lamins and core histones, all known to bind BAF directly, plus four human transcription factors (Requiem, NonO, p15, LEDGF), disease-linked proteins (e.g., Huntingtin, Treacle) and several proteins and enzymes that regulate chromatin. Association with endogenous BAF was independently validated by co-immunoprecipitation from HeLa cells for seven candidates including Requiem, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1), retinoblastoma binding protein 4 (RBBP4), damage-specific DNA binding protein 1 (DDB1) and DDB2. Interestingly, endogenous BAF and emerin each associated with DDB2 and CUL4A in a UV- and time-dependent manner, suggesting BAF and emerin have dynamic roles in genome integrity and might help couple DNA damage responses to the nuclear lamina network. We conclude this proteome is a rich source of candidate partners for BAF and potentially also A- and B-type lamins, which may reveal how chromatin regulation and genome integrity are linked to nuclear structure.
    PLoS ONE 09/2009; 4(9):e7050. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0007050 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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