The role of autologous stem cell transplantation (AuSCT) in older multiple myeloma patients is unclear. Using data from the Autologous Blood and Marrow Transplant Registry, we compared the outcome of 110 patients >/=the age of 60 (median 63; range 60-73) years, undergoing AuSCT with that of 382 patients <60 (median 52; range 30-59) years. The two groups were similar except that older patients had a higher beta(2)-microglobulin level at diagnosis (P=0.016) and fewer had lytic lesions (P=0.007). Day 100 mortality was 6% (95% confidence interval 4-9) and 1-year treatment-related mortality (TRM) was 9% (6-13) in patients <60 years, compared with 5% (2-10) and 8% (4-14), respectively, in patients >/=60 years. The relapse rate, progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in the two groups were also similar. Multivariate analysis of all patients identified only an interval from diagnosis to AuSCT >12 months and the use of two prior chemotherapy regimens within 6 months of AuSCT as adverse prognostic factors. Our results indicate that AuSCT can be safely performed in selected older patients: the best results were observed in patients undergoing AuSCT relatively early in their disease course.
"The Durie-Salmon clinical stage at the time of ASCT does not correlate well with prognosis (20), whereas the ISS stage or SWOG stage at the time of ASCT do correlate well with prognosis (15, 16). In addition, increased β2-microglobulin and reduced albumin levels immediately prior to ASCT are known to be adverse prognostic factors (13, 19-21). In our study, IgD subtype and SWOG stage at the time of ASCT were found to be independently associated with OS after ASCT. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Immunoglobulin (Ig) D multiple myeloma (MM) accounts for 2% of all MM cases and has been reported to be associated with poor prognosis compared with other MM subtypes. The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of high-dose melphalan treatment and autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) on the survival of patients with IgD MM and patients with other MM subtypes. Between November 1998 and January 2005, a total of 77 patients with MM who underwent ASCT at the Asan Medical Center were enrolled in this study. High-dose melphalan (total 200 mg/m2) was used as high-dose chemotherapy. The study population was divided into two groups based on MM subtype: those with IgD MM; and those with other MM subtypes. A total of 8 patients with IgD MM were identified, accounting for about 10% of the study population. Thirty-six patients (47%) had IgG MM, 17 patients (22%) had IgA MM, and 16 patients (20%) had free light-chain MM. The two groups were similar in baseline characteristics. The median follow-up was 17 months and the median overall survival (OS) was 39 months. In the IgD MM group, median eventfree survival (EFS) and OS were 6.9 and 12 months, respectively. In the patients with other MM subtypes, median EFS and OS were 11.5 and 55.5 months (p=0.01, p<0.01), respectively. Multivariate analysis of all patients identified IgD subtype (p=0.002) and Southwest Oncology Group (SWOG) stage 2 or greater at the time of ASCT (p=0.01) as adverse prognostic factors for survival. In this small study at a single center in Korea, patients with IgD MM had poorer outcomes after ASCT than did patients with other MM subtypes.
Journal of Korean Medical Science 10/2008; 23(5):819-24. DOI:10.3346/jkms.2008.23.5.819 · 1.27 Impact Factor
"It is obvious that no single factor can explain the difference in outcome between the age groups; our data indicate that both higher vulnerability to intensive therapy and more aggressive disease resulting in inferior disease control contribute to the difference found. Our finding that age above 60 years is an adverse prognostic factor for patients undergoing intensive therapy is in contrast to other published results (Siegel et al, 1999; Sirohi et al, 2000; Reece et al, 2003). However, in contrast to our study, these were all retrospective comparisons on a selected group of patients who actually underwent autologous transplantation and survival was calculated from time of transplantation and not from initiation of therapy. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The value of intensive therapy, including autologous stem cell transplantation, in newly diagnosed myeloma patients >60 years is not clear. We evaluated the impact of age (<60 years vs. 60-64 years) on survival in a prospective, population-based setting and compared survival with conventionally treated historic controls. The prospective population comprised 452 patients registered between 1998 and 2000. Of these, 414 received intensive therapy. The historic population, derived from our most recent population-based study on conventional therapy, comprised 281 patients. Of these, 243 fulfilled our eligibility criteria for intensive therapy. For patients undergoing intensive therapy it was found that two factors, beta-2-microglobulin and age <60 years vs. 60-64 years, had independent prognostic impact on survival. However, compared with the historic controls a survival advantage was found both for patients <60 (median 66 months vs. 43 months, P < 0.001) and 60-64 years (median 50 months vs. 27 months; P = 0.001). We conclude that in a population-based setting higher age adversely influences outcome after intensive therapy. Our results indicate that intensive therapy prolongs survival also at age 60-64 years but with less superiority than in younger patients.
British Journal of Haematology 06/2006; 133(4):389-96. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2141.2006.06042.x · 4.71 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In most cases multiple myeloma is an incurable plasma cell malignancy. Despite the use of conventional therapy or high-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT), patients continue to relapse at a constant rate. A small minority of patients are cured by allogeneic transplantation. Novel drugs targeting not only the myeloma cell but also its interactions with the malignant microenvironment have recently been used in patients with relapsed/refractory disease. So far, ASCT has been the treatment of choice for eligible myeloma patients. However, many questions regarding the management of myeloma patients remain unanswered. How safe is ASCT in elderly patients? Is there a role for non-myeloablative allogeneic transplantation in multiple myeloma? What is the role of novel agents, such as thalidomide, its analogues and bortezomib, in the treatment of newly diagnosed patients or as maintenance post-ASCT? This review summarises all available data for the current treatment options for myeloma providing a useful algorithm for its management.
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