The measurement of influenza vaccine coverage among health care workers
ABSTRACT Annual influenza vaccination is recommended for health care workers in both the United States and Canada. Estimations of vaccine coverage are commonly used to evaluate these vaccination programs.
We identify, discuss, and illustrate challenges including definitions of health care worker (HCW), selection of indicators, and data sources in the estimation of staff influenza vaccination coverage rates.
To illustrate the impact of the factors we discuss, we created a database of a simulated pool of HCWs that included varying proportions of permanent, casual, and contract staff under differing scenarios of staff turnover and differing probabilities of individuals being vaccinated. The Excel 97 random number generator (Microsoft) was used to randomly allocate the HCW to different strata under differing staff turnover rates and to designate individuals as being vaccinated.
The nature of the staff targeted in the program policy has a large impact on the estimations of vaccine coverage. Different indicators provide data that might be useful for different purposes. The counts in the numerator and denominator of a period prevalence may be useful for estimation of the total workload required of the vaccination program. An incidence density might be useful as an indicator of the efficiency of the program in "capturing" staff for vaccination. The indicator that may be easiest is the point prevalence.
Program evaluators must think carefully when planning to estimate staff vaccination coverage to avoid invalid comparisons of estimates over time and place. State or province-wide targets for health care worker (HCW) vaccination may be meaningless unless appropriate criteria for the calculation of influenza vaccination rates are developed and specified.
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ABSTRACT: Healthcare personnel (HCP) are at risk from occupational exposure to airborne and bloodborne pathogens, and the risk of infection among HCP is greater than among the general population. The aim of the study was to characterize attitudes toward occupational recommended vaccines as well as the perception of risks of occupationally acquired infections. We surveyed 650 medical students to assess their perception of influenza and hepatitis B and their opinions and beliefs about influenza and hepatitis B vaccines. We found differences between pre-clinical and clinical students regarding the uptake of influenza and hepatitis B vaccines, about the chances of being occupationally infected with influenza or hepatitis B, and about the likelihood of suffering from severe side-effects following immunization. Interestingly, the risk perception varied drastically between the two vaccine-preventable diseases hepatitis B and influenza. Medical students rated the probability of contracting hepatitis B due to a work-related exposure and the severity of disease significantly higher than for influenza, and this may be an explanation for the greater acceptance of the hepatitis B vaccine. Furthermore, our findings suggest that medical students are frequently inaccurate in assessing their own risk level, and their specific knowledge about both diseases and the severity of these diseases proved to be unsatisfactory.Vaccine 09/2013; 31(44). DOI:10.1016/j.vaccine.2013.08.070 · 3.49 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Annual influenza vaccination is recommended for healthcare workers (HCWs) in order to reduce the morbidity associated with influenza in healthcare settings. The objectives of the study were to determine the rate of influenza vaccination, knowledge, attitudes and beliefs toward influenza immunization among healthcare workers at our hospital, and to identify reasons for electing or declining the immunization. Between January and February 2009, we carried out a cross-sectional study of influenza vaccination coverage among HCWs at King Abdul-Aziz Hospital, Saudi Arabia. After receiving a brief description of the aim of the study, 512 of 902 HCWs self-completed an anonymous questionnaire. Influenza vaccination coverage was low at a rate of 34.4% in 2008-9. The knowledge of influenza disease and prevention was low, with a mean knowledge score of 5.8+/-2.1. The most common reason for being vaccinated was self-protection from illness (95%), and the most common reason for not being vaccinated was a belief that vaccine is not effective in disease prevention (51%). We found that being female, awareness of effectiveness of vaccine in disease prevention, feeling at risk of influenza, self-protection, to protect the patients, previous influenza vaccination were statistically significant factors for influenza vaccination. Despite the recommendations, influenza vaccination coverage is low among HCWs at our hospital. Misconceptions about influenza vaccination were prevalent among the healthcare workers. Specific continuous educational and vaccination programs for different targets should be organized to reduce morbidity and mortality in high-risk patients.Vaccine 06/2010; 28(26):4283-7. DOI:10.1016/j.vaccine.2010.04.031 · 3.49 Impact Factor