An ad libitum, very low-fat diet results in weight loss and changes in nutrient intakes in postmenopausal women.
ABSTRACT To determine whether a very low-fat diet (<15% of energy intake) consumed ad libitum during an 8-month period can achieve weight loss of 5% to 10% of initial body weight while still providing adequate intakes of other essential nutrients.
Longitudinal, 8-month, ad libitum, free living, very low-fat diet trial.
Fifty-four of the sixty-four healthy postmenopausal women recruited completed the entire study (age 59+/-8 years, BMI=29.6+/-6.3). Twenty-four of these women used hormone replacement therapy, thirty women did not.
Weekly sessions aimed at teaching and reinforcing a very low-fat intake diet for eight months. MAIN: outcome measures Body weight, percent body fat, waist-to-hip ratio, resting energy expenditure, respiratory quotient, and nutrient intakes derived from 7-day food records at the beginning and at 2, 4, 6, and 8 months of the study. Statistical analysis performed Repeated measures analysis of variance and Tukey post hoc analysis were used to analyze significant differences in mean data (P<.05).
Fat intake decreased from 33.2+/-7.5% to 11+/-4% over the 8-month intervention period (P<.00001). Weight loss was 6.0 kg+/- 4.2 kg (P<.000038), an 8% weight change, and decrease in percent body fat of 2.7%+/-0.2% (P< or =.000046). Weight correlated better with the self-reported fat intake (r=0.321, P<.01) than the energy intake (r=0.263, P<.05) at baseline. Fiber intake increased from 16 g+/-0.6 g to 23 g+/-0.2 g (P<.0005). All micronutrient intakes remained at or above preintervention ranges, except for a decrease in vitamin E intake from 8.1 mg+/-4.0 mg to 3.7 mg+/-1.1 mg (P<.0005) on the very low-fat diet and linoleic acid from 6.3%+/-1.5% to 2.5%+/-0.7% (P<.000001) with no significant reduction in linolenic acid. Hormone replacement was not associated with the amount of weight loss.
This study demonstrates that adherence to a very low-fat diet consumed ad libitum causes weight loss in the 5% to 10% range and a reduction of body fat. These reductions, along with the observed decreases in fat intake, are associated with improved health outcomes. Because of the decreased vitamin E and n-3 fatty acid intake, emphasis on foods high in these nutrients may need to be encouraged for those consuming a very low-fat diet.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: There is uncertainty regarding the prevention of migraine crises by changing the lifestyle of patients. The aim of this randomized, crossover intervention trial was to evaluate the effects of a low lipid intake on the incidence and severity of migraine crises, in comparison to a diet with moderate lipid intake. After a 2-month run-in when patients received preventive medication but were left on their habitual diet, a low-lipid or a normal-lipid diet was randomly prescribed for 3 months and thereafter diets were crossed over for the following 3 months. Headache was diagnosed based on the International Classification of Headache Disorders (IHCD) III criteria. The number and severity of attacks were assessed using a self-reported calendar. Adherence to the diet was assessed by a food frequency questionnaire. An analysis was performed on the 83 episodic or chronic migraineurs (63 female and 20 male), in the age range of 18-57 years, who completed both intervention periods. Obese subjects had a significantly higher number of attacks than those overweight or with normal body weight (24.7 ± 8, 16.3 ± 12, and 15.6 ± 11, respectively, p < 0.03) with a significant relationship between the body mass index (BMI) and the number of monthly attacks (r = 0.238, p < 0.03). The number (2.9 ± 3.7 vs. 6.8 ± 7.5, p < 0.001) and severity (1.2 + 0.9 vs. 1.7 ± 0.9, p < 0.01) of attacks significantly decreased during both intervention periods, with a significant difference in favour of the low-lipid diet. In this group of patients, the low-lipid diet significantly affected the number and severity of migraine attacks in comparison to a normal-lipid diet. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT 01917474. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.Nutrition Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases 12/2014; 25(4). DOI:10.1016/j.numecd.2014.12.006 · 3.88 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To evaluate, in a feasibility study, the adherence to a low-fat diet by men with prostate cancer. Evidence is growing that a low-fat diet affects the development and course of prostate cancer. To design preventive and therapeutic interventions, it is important to know whether men will adhere to these nutritional recommendations, particularly when motivated by the diagnosis of prostate cancer. Men with elevated prostate-specific antigen levels, most of whom were recently treated for prostate cancer, were randomized to one of four dietary regimens for which they received nutritional counseling: a low-fat diet (15% fat or less) with supplements (vitamin E and selenium), a low-fat diet (15% fat or less) without the supplements, the supplements alone, and a control group. Adherence was evaluated by the change in weight, fat intake, free fatty acids, cholesterol, high-density and low-density lipoproteins, and triglycerides during a 12-month period. The mean age of the 48 participants was 66 years. For those counseled about a low-fat diet, the mean change in the percentage of energy (kilocalories) in the diet from fat was greater after 3 months (-8.6% versus +2.1%, P <0.001) and 12 months (-9.8% versus -1.6%, P = 0.001). Three months after starting the intervention, those randomized to low-fat dietary counseling had lost 2 kg, on average, compared with 0.8 kg lost by those who did not receive this counseling (P = 0.09). At 12 months, those receiving low-fat counseling had lost 2.8 kg, on average, compared with 0.5 kg gained among the other groups (P = 0.02). With appropriate counseling, men with prostate cancer can adhere to a low-fat dietary intervention for a 12-month period.Urology 12/2004; 64(5):970-5. DOI:10.1016/j.urology.2004.06.040 · 2.13 Impact Factor