Severe cholestasis induced by cholic acid feeding in knockout mice of sister of P-glycoprotein.
ABSTRACT Intrahepatic cholestasis is often associated with impairment of biliary bile acid secretion, a process mediated by the sister of P-glycoprotein (Spgp or Abcb11) also known as the bile salt export pump (Bsep). In humans, mutations in the Spgp gene are associated with a fatal childhood disease, type 2 progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis (PFIC2). However in mice, the "knockout" of Spgp only results in mild cholestasis. In this study, we fed spgp(-/-) knockout mice with a cholic acid (CA)-supplemented diet to determine whether a more pronounced PFIC2-like phenotype could be induced. Such mice developed severe cholestasis characterized by jaundice, weight loss, elevated plasma bile acid, elevated transaminase, cholangiopathy (proliferation of bile ductules and cholangitis), liver necrosis, high mortality, and wide-ranging changes in the mRNA expression of major liver genes (16/36 examined). A surprising observation was that the bile acid output and bile flow in CA-fed mutant mice was significantly higher than anticipated. This suggests that the spgp(-/-) mice are able to utilize an alternative bile salt transport system. However, unlike Spgp, this system is insufficient to protect the knockout mice from cholestasis despite its high capacity. In conclusion, the spgp(-/-) mice provide a unique model to investigate molecular pathways associated with cholestasis and related diseases.
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ABSTRACT: The bile salt export pump (BSEP/Bsep; gene symbol ABCB11/Abcb11) translocates bile salts across the hepatocyte canalicular membrane into bile in humans and mice. In humans, mutations in the ABCB11 gene cause a severe childhood liver disease known as progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis type 2. Targeted inactivation of mouse Bsep produces milder persistent cholestasis due to detoxification of bile acids through hydroxylation and alternative transport pathways. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether functional expression of hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP) and microsomal epoxide hydrolase (mEH) is altered by Bsep inactivation in mice and whether bile acids regulate CYP and mEH expression in Bsep (-/-) mice. CYP expression was determined by measuring protein levels of Cyp2b, Cyp2c and Cyp3a enzymes and CYP-mediated activities including lithocholic acid hydroxylation, testosterone hydroxylation and alkoxyresorufin O-dealkylation in hepatic microsomes prepared from female and male Bsep (-/-) mice fed a normal or cholic acid (CA)-enriched diet. The results indicated that hepatic lithocholic acid hydroxylation was catalyzed by Cyp3a/Cyp3a11 enzymes in Bsep (-/-) mice and that 3-ketocholanoic acid and murideoxycholic acid were major metabolites. CA feeding of Bsep (-/-) mice increased hepatic Cyp3a11 protein levels and Cyp3a11-mediated testosterone 2β-, 6β-, and 15β-hydroxylation activities, increased Cyp2b10 protein levels and Cyp2b10-mediated benzyloxyresorufin O-debenzylation activity, and elevated Cyp2c29 and mEH protein levels. We propose that bile acids upregulate expression of hepatic Cyp3a11, Cyp2b10, Cyp2c29 and mEH in Bsep (-/-) mice and that Cyp3a11 and multidrug resistance-1 P-glycoproteins (Mdr1a/1b) are vital components of two distinct pathways utilized by mouse hepatocytes to expel bile acids.Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry 01/2014; · 2.33 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: See related article in EMBO Molecular Medicine http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/emmm.201201228.EMBO Molecular Medicine 08/2012; 4(9):863-5. · 7.80 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Inhibition of the transporter-mediated hepatobiliary elimination of bile salts is a putative mechanism for liver toxicity observed with some endothelin receptor antagonists (ERAs). Sandwich-cultured human hepatocytes were used to study the hepatobiliary distribution and accumulation of exogenous taurocholate, ERAs and endogenous bile acids. The molecular mechanisms for findings in hepatocytes or clinical observations were further explored using either vesicular assays (efflux transporters) or transfected cell-lines (uptake transporters). Inhibition constants (IC50) were measured for the human hepatobiliary transporters bile salt export pump (BSEP), sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP), multidrug resistance protein 2 (MRP2), P-glycoprotein (Pgp), breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), organic anion-transporting polypeptide 1B1 (OATP1B1) and OATP1B3. The ERAs showed dose-dependent reductions in exogenous taurocholate cellular accumulation in human hepatocytes, with macitentan having the greatest effect. Consistent with their effects on bile acids, the ERAs inhibited bile transporters. IC50 values for OATP1B1 and OATP1B3 ranged from 2 µM for macitentan to 47 µM for ambrisentan. Macitentan and bosentan also inhibited NTCP with IC50 values of 10 and 36 µM, respectively. Similar to previously reported findings with sitaxsentan, BSEP inhibition was observed for bosentan and macitentan with IC50 values of 42 and 12 µM, respectively. In contrast, ambrisentan showed little or no inhibition of these transporters. Other transporters tested were weakly inhibited by the ERAs. Accumulation in hepatocytes was also a factor in the effects on bile transport. Macitentan demonstrated the greatest accumulation in human hepatocytes (∼100x) followed by sitaxsentan (∼40x), bosentan (∼20x) and ambrisentan (∼2x). Significant differences in the inhibition of hepatic transporters were observed between the evaluated ERAs in vitro. Macitentan had the highest level of cellular accumulation and caused the greatest effects on bile acid distribution in human hepatocytes followed by sitaxsentan and bosentan. Ambrisentan showed a low potential to affect bile acids.PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(1):e87548. · 3.53 Impact Factor