Association of regimens of hormone replacement therapy to prognostic factors among women diagnosed with breast cancer aged 50-64 years.
ABSTRACT This study was conducted to assess the histopathological features of breast cancers in women diagnosed with breast cancer at 50-64 years of age who have and have not used hormone replacement therapy (HRT). A case-case analysis of the tumors from women aged 50-64 years who participated in a multicenter population-based case-control study of invasive breast cancer was conducted. In-person interviews collected a detailed history of all episodes of hormone use. Information was collected on selected tumor characteristics from 2346 women with breast cancer. Polytomous logistic regression was used to calculate the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), contrasting the histopathological characteristics of the tumors of women who used various regimens of HRT with those of women who have never used HRT. The tumors of cases who used each regimen of HRT were smaller and of earlier stage than those of non-HRT users. Adjustment for screening diminished the magnitude of the effect, and only cases who used estrogen alone (estrogen replacement therapy) had reduced odds of being diagnosed with later-stage disease (regional or distant) than cases who never used HRT (OR, 0.7; 95% CI, 0.6-0.9). Higher proportions of estrogen receptor (ER)- and progesterone receptor (PR)-positive tumors were seen in cases who used any regimen of HRT versus those who did not use HRT. However, after adjustment for age and race, only the tumors of cases who used continuous combined HRT remained more likely to be ER+ and PR+ [OR ER- = 0.6 (95% CI, 0.4-0.9) and OR PR- = 0.5 (95% CI, 0.4-0.7)]. The tumors of women with breast cancer who used HRT have some better prognostic factors than those of women who have not used HRT. However, with the exception of the results noted above, this advantage may be due to the racial and age differences in those who use the various regimens of HRT and the effect of more frequent screening among HRT users, leading to earlier diagnosis.
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ABSTRACT: The purpose was to investigate the prevalence rate, characteristics and related factors of breast cancer among women in Eastern China. A total of 122,058 female subjects completed the study, with 320 confirmed cases of breast cancer (crude prevalence: 262.5/100,000; standardized prevalence: 207.7/100,000). Among all of the identified breast cancer cases, 91.6% were diagnosed after the age of 35 and 60.0% were diagnosed before menopause. The odds ratios (95% confidence interval) of those breast cancer risk factors as selected through multivariate logistic regression were as follows: 5.438 (1.553-19.004) for family history of breast cancer, 3.556 (1.880-6.728) for high behavior intervention score, 3.556 (0.904-13.994) for history of diabetes, 3.357 (1.131-9.969) for history of benign breast tumors, 2.196 (1.355-3.556) for poor overall life satisfaction, 1.826 (0.995-3.350) for premenopause of breast cancer, 1.528 (1.083-2.155) for high BMI index, 1.500 (0.920-2.446) for poor financial status, 1.497 (1.014-2.211) for multiple miscarriages/abortions, and 1.231 (0.972-1.559) for infrequent consumption of garlic (frequent garlic consumption is a protective factor). There were significantly more cases of breast cancer diagnosed prior to menopause than after menopause, and most of the patients were diagnosed after the age of 35. These findings suggest that attention should be focused on the incidence of breast cancer among premenopausal women older than 35.PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(6):e37784. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Multiple past studies have reported a reduced risk of breast cancer-related mortality (BCM) in relation to pre-diagnostic use of hormone therapy (HT); however, the extent to which this reduction is due to heightened screening or tumor biology is unknown. Using a population-based cohort of 1,911 post-menopausal women diagnosed with invasive breast cancer at ages 45-79 from 1993 to 1999, we investigated the extent to which the reduced risk in BCM observed in relation to HT might be explained by screening patterns or tumor features. Estrogen-progestin therapy (EPT) use was associated with a decreased risk of BCM (after adjustment for age, study, mammography, stage, and treatment), but only among older women (ever use: ≥ 65 years: HR = 0.45 [95% CI 0.26-0.80]; <65 years: HR = 1.03 [95% CI 0.60-1.79]). Estrogen-alone therapy (ET) use was not associated with risk of BCM (ever use: ≥ 65 years: HR = 0.76 [95% CI 0.51-1.12]; <65 years: HR = 1.20 [95% CI 0.71-2.02]). HT users had a much greater frequency of mammography (P value <0.001). EPT use was associated with tumor characteristics related to improved prognosis in older women after adjustment for screening, including an inverse association with poorly differentiated tumors (OR = 0.57 [95% CI 0.38-0.85]) and an association with lobular tumors (OR = 1.68 [95% CI 1.07-2.65]). Beyond the influence of EPT use on screening uptake, these data indicate that the improved survival associated with pre-diagnostic EPT use may be due in part to the development of more favorable tumor characteristics.Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 09/2010; 126(3):749-61. · 4.47 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The relevance of progesterone to breast carcinogenesis is highlighted by evidence indicating that use of combined estrogen-progesterone therapy (EPT) is more strongly related to breast cancer risk than is use of unopposed estrogen therapy. However, few investigators have assessed how genetic variation in progesterone-related genes modifies the effect of EPT on risk. In an analysis combining data from 2 population-based case-control studies of postmenopausal breast cancer (1,296 cases and 1,055 controls) conducted in Washington State in 1997-1999 and 2000-2004, the authors evaluated how 51 single nucleotide polymorphisms in 7 progesterone-related genes (AKR1C1, AKR1C2, AKR1C3, CYP3A4, SRD5A1, SRD5A2, and PGR) influenced breast cancer risk. There was no appreciable association with breast cancer risk overall for any single nucleotide polymorphism. For rs2854482 in AKR1C2, carrying 1 or 2 A alleles was associated with a 2.0-fold increased breast cancer risk in EPT users (95% confidence interval: 1.0, 4.0) but not in never users (P(heterogeneity) = 0.03). For rs12387 in AKR1C3, the presence of 1 or 2 G alleles was associated with a 1.5-fold increased risk among EPT users (95% confidence interval: 1.1, 2.2) but not in never users (P(heterogeneity) = 0.02). Interpretation of these subgroup associations must await the results of similar studies conducted in other populations.American journal of epidemiology 11/2009; 170(10):1241-9. · 5.59 Impact Factor