TIMP-1 inhibits apoptosis in breast carcinoma cells via a pathway involving pertussis toxin-sensitive G protein and c-Src.
ABSTRACT In addition to inhibiting matrix metalloproteinases, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) is involved in the regulation of cell growth and survival. To determine its mechanism of action, we investigated effects of TIMP-1 on cell proliferation and survival and signaling pathways induced by TIMP-1 in the human breast carcinoma T-47D cell line. Treatment of T-47D cells with TIMP-1 strongly inhibited apoptosis induced by serum deprivation, but did not affect cell proliferation. TIMP-1 induced phosphorylation of Akt and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases (ERKs), but pertussis toxin and specific inhibitors of Src family tyrosine kinases, protein tyrosine kinases, and phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3 kinase) blocked the ability of TIMP-1 to activate Akt and ERKs as well as the anti-apoptotic effect of TIMP-1. We found that TIMP-1 enhanced the kinase activities of c-Src and PI3 kinase and that this enhancement was inhibited by pertussis toxin. Inhibition of ERK activation, however, resulted in a slight decrease of the TIMP-1-induced anti-apoptotic effect. These findings demonstrate that the ability of TIMP-1 to inhibit apoptosis in T-47D cells is mediated by the sequential activation of pertussis toxin-sensitive G protein, c-Src, PI3 kinase, and Akt.