The embryology of gut rotation.

Department of Paediatric Surgery, University Hospital Eppendorf, Germany.
Seminars in Pediatric Surgery (Impact Factor: 2.4). 12/2003; 12(4):275-9. DOI: 10.1053/j.sempedsurg.2003.08.009
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Until today, the puzzling spectrum of midgut "malrotations" is commonly explained by an "impaired" process of rotation of the midgut. However, a closer look at the literature reveals that the description of this "process of rotation" is rather schematic and is aimed more at explaining pathological findings, while detailed proper embryological investigations are still rare. Despite recent trials, good animals models that would allow the comparison of normal and abnormal midgut development are still missing. In the first part of this article, the "normal process of rotation," as it is described in the literature, is presented and critically analyzed. In general, it is a shortcoming that reliable illustrations of these crucial embryological processes are missing in most of these papers. Therefore, in the second part of this review scanning electron microscopy pictures of the developing midgut are presented in a series of rat embryos. In these pictures clear signs of a process of rotation are missing.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: During digestive organogenesis, the primitive gut tube (PGT) undergoes dramatic elongation and forms a lumen lined by a single-layer of epithelium. In Xenopus, endoderm cells in the core of the PGT rearrange during gut elongation, but the morphogenetic mechanisms controlling their reorganization are undetermined. Here, we define the dynamic changes in endoderm cell shape, polarity, and tissue architecture that underlie Xenopus gut morphogenesis. Gut endoderm cells intercalate radially, between their anterior and posterior neighbors, transforming the nearly solid endoderm core into a single layer of epithelium while concomitantly eliciting "radially convergent" extension within the gut walls. Inhibition of Rho/ROCK/Myosin II activity prevents endoderm rearrangements and consequently perturbs both gut elongation and digestive epithelial morphogenesis. Our results suggest that the cellular and molecular events driving tissue elongation in the PGT are mechanistically analogous to those that function during gastrulation, but occur within a novel cylindrical geometry to generate an epithelial-lined tube.
    Developmental Dynamics 11/2009; 238(12):3111-25. · 2.59 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The ability to generate conditional mutant alleles in mice using Cre-lox technology has facilitated analysis of genes playing critical roles in multiple developmental processes at different times. We used a transgenic Hoxb6 promoter to drive tamoxifen-dependent Cre recombinase expression in several developing systems that serve as major models for elucidating inductive interactions and mechanisms of morphogenesis, including lateral plate mesoderm and descendant limb buds, neural crest progenitors of the neural tube, tailbud, and CNS isthmic organizer. The Hoxb6CreER(T) line gives very rapid and complete recombination over a short time window after a single tamoxifen dose, allowing precise time requirements for gene function to be assessed accurately. Embryonic cells cultured from the Hoxb6CreER(T) line also display rapid recombination ex vivo after tamoxifen exposure. Hence, the Hoxb6CreER(T) line provides a valuable tool for analyzing gene function, as well as lineage tracing studies using genetic cell marking, in several developing systems.
    Developmental Dynamics 02/2009; 238(2):467-74. · 2.59 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Right paraduodenal hernia (PDH) results from a primitive gut malrotation. The resultant jejunal mesenteric defect posterior to the superior mesenteric vessels allows decompressed jejunum to herniate retroperitoneally. PDH make up 53% of all internal hernias, but account for only 0.2% to 5.8% of all cases of intestinal obstruction. In addition, PDH exhibits male and left-sided predominance. Ours is the second report to describe the preoperative diagnosis and totally laparoscopic repair of a right PDH. We report the case of a 26-year-old female with symptoms suggestive of partial small bowel obstruction and a 6-year history of intermittent abdominal pain. Physical examination demonstrated lower quadrant tenderness. Plain abdominal radiographs and ultrasonography were nondiagnostic. Contrasted computed tomography of the abdomen revealed jejunum encased within the right upper quadrant suspicious for right PDH. The patient underwent successful laparoscopic right PDH repair and was discharged home on postoperative day 1 without late sequelae. In the outpatient setting, clinical suspicion and comprehensive radiological investigation permit preoperative diagnosis of right PDH. In acute situations, clinical presentation, plain radiographs, and then diagnostic laparoscopy may be an expeditious diagnostic algorithm. Subsequent laparoscopic repair of right PDH is feasible and may shorten hospital length of stay.
    JSLS: Journal of the Society of Laparoendoscopic Surgeons / Society of Laparoendoscopic Surgeons 01/2009; 13(2):242-9. · 0.81 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
Jun 3, 2014