Endothelin-1 (ET-1, "mature ET-1") is a potent vasoconstrictor peptide that is made along with "big ET-1" from its precursor, preproET-1. Increased plasma concentrations of ET-1 and big ET-1 occur with various forms of cardiovascular disease in humans. Our laboratory is investigating plasma endothelins as diagnostic tests of cardiovascular disease in dogs and cats; however, commercial immunoassays designed specifically for use in dogs and cats are limited.
Amino acid sequences of feline and canine big ET-1 were obtained and used to predict antibody cross-reactivity with immunoassay test kits from other species.
Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood and total RNA was extracted from canine and feline left ventricles for reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and PCR amplification of segments of the canine and feline preprohormone containing the big ET-1 sequences. The derived amino acid sequences were compared with known big ET-1 and ET-1 sequences of several other species, including human, mouse, and rat.
Feline and canine big ET-1 had 87-97% and 89-100% homology, respectively, with that of other mammalian species. Canine ET-1 was identical to human, mouse, and rat ET-1. In contrast, the amino acid sequence of feline ET-1 was unique owing to a leucine for methionine substitution at position 7.
It is highly likely that anti-human and anti-rodent ET-1 antibodies will cross-react with mature canine ET-1. In contrast, antibodies to mature ET-1 intended for use with feline tissues and antibodies to big ET-1 in either dogs or cats may have partial or no cross-reactivity depending on the peptide sequences used to produce the antibodies.
"Big ET-1 was measured in all samples using a sandwich ELISA (IBL Hamburg) validated in dogs (Schellenberg et al., 2008). The kit includes a primary capturing antibody against the C-terminal 22–38 amino acid sequence of rat big ET-1, which shows close homology to the canine amino acid sequence (Biondo et al., 2003). The secondary antibody for detection is directed against a different antigenic site of the molecule. "
"similar but not homologous ( Biondo et al . , 2003 ) . Poor cross - reactivity of the anti - Big - ET anti - body with canine Big - ET may be another reason for the poor results obtained with this kit . In contrast , canine and rat amino acid sequences for Big - ET show closer homology at the antibody - binding site than with the human sequences ( Biondo et al . , 2003 ) . Better performance of the rat Big - ET kit could be expected and was confirmed in our study ."
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Immunoassays for the measurement of concentrations of the cardiovascular peptides pro-atrial natriuretic peptide (proANP), brain natriuretic peptide (BNPPen and BNPPhoe), endothelin-1 (ET-1Bio, ET-1IBL and ET-1Phoe) and big endothelin-1 (Big-ETBio and Big-ETIBL) were validated in canine serum by determination of intra-assay variability and dilutional parallelism. Commercial kits that showed good results were further validated by determination of intra- and inter-assay variability, dilutional parallelism and spiking recovery. Assays for proANP, BNPPhoe, ET-1IBL and Big-ETIBL showed acceptable results in the preliminary validation and were fully validated. The intra- and inter-assay variability was acceptable for all four assays, linearity was demonstrated and recovery rates were acceptable. The performances of the different immunoassays varied considerably, underscoring the importance of validation. Of the assays studied, proANP, BNP(Phoe), ET-1IBL and Big-ETIBL produced precise, reproducible and accurate results and can be recommended for clinical application.
The Veterinary Journal 09/2007; 178(1):85-90. DOI:10.1016/j.tvjl.2007.07.002 · 1.76 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Current evidence favors the view that regardless of etiology, there is a predictable sequence of neuroendocrine activation that operates in most dogs and cats with progressive heart disease and that it is largely, but not entirely, independent of etiology. The natriuretic peptides and sympathetic nervous system seem to be early responders to developing cardiac and hemodynamic perturbations in both species. BNP plays a particularly prominent role in cats, possibly as a reflection of disease etiology. Shortly thereafter, plasma endothelin concentrations rise, reflecting the impact of the hemodynamic alterations on the vasculature. Endothelin and the natriuretic peptides directly suppress plasma renin release but have divergent effects on aldosterone. Activation of the tissue RAAS may operate early on to further the progression of heart failure, but evidence of plasma RAAS activation occurs comparatively late and near the time of development of overt CHF. Finally, in animals with severe CHF that are prone to hypotension,vasopressin levels may also rise, contributing to the retention of free water and congestion that is refractory to diuretics. Although oversimplified, this scenario seems to be consistent with data obtained in human, canine, and feline patients. These observations provide some impetus for evaluating ACE inhibitors in cats and beta-receptor-blocking drugs in dogs and cats. Perhaps we are also a little closer to identifying useful biochemical markers that can aid in the diagnosis of heart disease, guide therapy, and improve our understanding of the biologic processes occurring in our patients.
Veterinary Clinics of North America Small Animal Practice 10/2004; 34(5):1105-26. DOI:10.1016/j.cvsm.2004.05.005 · 0.82 Impact Factor
Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.