Proliferative breast disease: epidemiologic aspects, and cytologic diagnosis.
ABSTRACT The aim of the present study is to describe the prevalence of proliferative breast lesions in cases of benign and malignant tumors of the breast as well as to assess the contribution of rapid intraoperative imprint cytology in the diagnosis of proliferative breast disease.
Frozen section and intraoperative imprint cytology were performed on breast tissue biopsies from 486 breast cancer patients who underwent primary surgical treatment. Imprints were stained either by the Papanicolaou (Pap) or the May Grünwald-Giemsa (MGG) or the Hematoxylin eosin (HE) technique. Cytologic diagnoses were compared to the histopathologic ones from paraffin sections.
Sclerosing adenosis was the most common finding in benign breast biopsies while in breast cancer the prevalence of the lesion was reduced by half. On the other hand, atypical hyperplasias in malignant biopsies were almost twice as many as in benign ones. Imprint cytology presented high sensitivity and specificity (99% and 96% respectively) in distinguishing benign proliferative from malignant lesions as a whole, but regarding atypical hyperplasias the specificity was significantly reduced (76% vs 96%).
Clarification of cytologic diagnostic criteria and expertise in cytologic interpretation could show off intraoperative imprint cytology as a useful and inexpensive diagnostic tool providing the surgeon with prompt and accurate information regarding the nature of breast lesions.