The specificity of cardiac single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) perfusion imaging is significantly affected by internal photon absorption. Commonly referred to as anterior wall breast and inferior wall diaphragm attenuation artifacts, even when following characteristic patterns in women and men, the reduced activity produced can be difficult to differentiate from real perfusion defects. Unfortunately, wide variations in body habitus result in unpredictable variations in tissue attenuation and the specificity of uncorrected SPECT is unacceptably low in many laboratories. This manuscript reviews recent developments in attenuation correction methods for cardiac SPECT. Several commercial methods are now available, and although the initial success using these methods varied widely, as these methods have been improved successful clinical reports are appearing with increasing frequency. Recent developments have yielded more robust validated methods and significant clinical advantages have been achieved in the diagnostic evaluation of coronary heart disease (sensitivity as well as specificity) and myocardial viability. As these methods continue to mature, further advances should be anticipated.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Various modalities are available in the diagnostic and prognostic evaluation of patients presenting with known or suspected coronary artery disease (CAD). A rapidly expanding technique is noninvasive coronary angiography with Multi-Slice Computed Tomography (MSCT), which allows accurate detection of significant stenoses. The main value of the technique lies in the noninvasive exclusion of CAD in patients with intermediate pre-test likelihood. Although imaging in populations such as patients with previous stent placement appears to be more challenging, promising results have been obtained in these populations as well. However, it remains important to realize that the presence of coronary atherosclerosis with luminal obstruction does not invariably imply the presence of ischemia. Accordingly, a noninvasive angiographic imaging technique as MSCT cannot be used to predict the hemodynamical importance of lesions. In patients with borderline stenosis, therefore, functional testing (which can be performed by nuclear imaging, stress echocardiography or MRI) will remain necessary to determine management. Nonetheless, detection of CAD at a far earlier stage than functional imaging is an important advantage of MSCT. Initial investigations suggest that MSCT may distinguish different plaque characteristics between various presentations. Potentially, this information could be useful for risk stratification. Finally, additional non-coronary information can be derived as well. LV function can be evaluated with high accuracy while also information on the cardiac venous system can be obtained.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In cardiac SPECT, specificity is significantly affected by artifacts due to photon absorption. As the success of attenuation correction depends mainly on high-quality attenuation maps, SPECT low-dose CT devices are promising. We wanted to evaluate the usefulness of a SPECT low-dose CT device in myocardial perfusion scintigraphy. For the evaluation of attenuation correction systems, primarily comparisons with coronary angiography are used. Because the comparison of a method showing myocardial perfusion with an investigation displaying the morphology of vessels yields some difficulties, we chose perfusion PET with (13)N-ammonia as the reference method.
We prospectively analyzed 23 patients (6 women, 17 men) with known or suspected coronary artery disease. Rest studies and studies under pharmacologic stress with adenosine were performed. After simultaneous injection of (13)N-ammonia and (99m)Tc-sestamibi, a dynamic PET acquisition was started. The SPECT study was performed about 2 h later. Based on 20-segment polar maps, SPECT with and without attenuation correction was compared with PET-derived perfusion values and ammonia uptake values. The PET uptake images were also smoothed to adjust their resolution to the resolution of the SPECT images.
The concordance of SPECT and PET studies was improved after attenuation correction. The main effect was seen in the inferior wall. Especially in the apex and anterolateral wall, there were differences between SPECT and PET studies not attributable to attenuation artifacts. Because these differences diminished after smoothing of the PET studies, they might be due to partial-volume effects caused by the inferior resolution of the SPECT images.
The x-ray-derived attenuation correction leads to SPECT images that represent myocardial perfusion more accurately than nonattenuation-corrected SPECT images. The benefit of the method is seen primarily in the inferior wall. The low resolution of the SPECT system may lead to artifacts due to partial-volume effects. This phenomenon must be considered when perfusion PET is used as a reference method to investigate the effect of attenuation correction.
Journal of Nuclear Medicine 06/2005; 46(5):736-44. · 6.16 Impact Factor
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