Article

A 12-week, double-blind comparison of olanzapine vs haloperidol in the treatment of acute mania.

Lilly Research Laboratories, Indianapolis, Ind 46225, USA.
Archives of General Psychiatry (Impact Factor: 13.75). 01/2004; 60(12):1218-26. DOI: 10.1001/archpsyc.60.12.1218
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT This randomized controlled trial compares the efficacy and safety of olanzapine vs haloperidol, as well as the quality of life of patients taking these drugs, in patients with bipolar mania.
The design consisted of 2 successive, 6-week, double-blind periods and compared flexible dosing of olanzapine (5-20 mg/d, n = 234) with haloperidol (3-15 mg/d, n = 219).
Rates of remission (Young-Mania Rating Scale score of < or =12 and 21-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression score of < or =8 at week 6) were similar for olanzapine- and haloperidol-treated patients (52.1% vs 46.1%, respectively; P =.15). For the subgroup of patients whose index episode did not include psychotic features, rates of remission were significantly greater for the olanzapine group compared with the haloperidol group (56.7% vs 41.6%, P =.04). Relapse into an affective episode (mania and/or depression) occurred in 13.1% and 14.8% of olanzapine- and haloperidol-treated patients, respectively (P =.56). Switch to depression occurred significantly more rapidly with haloperidol than with olanzapine when using survival analysis techniques (P =.04), and significantly more haloperidol-treated patients experienced worsening of extrapyramidal symptoms, as indicated by several measures. Weight gain was significantly greater in the olanzapine group compared with the haloperidol group (2.82 vs 0.02 kg, P<.001). The olanzapine group had significant improvement in quality of life on several dimensions compared with the haloperidol group.
These data suggest that olanzapine does not differ from haloperidol in achieving overall remission of bipolar mania. However, haloperidol carries a higher rate of extrapyramidal symptoms, whereas olanzapine is associated with weight gain.

0 Followers
 · 
162 Views
  • Source
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In this article, we present and review the evidence for two major biopsychosocial theories of the onset and course of bipolar spectrum disorders (BSDs) that integrate behavioral, environmental, and neurobiological mechanisms: the reward hypersensitivity and the social/circadian rhythm disruption models. We describe the clinical features, spectrum, age of onset, and course of BSDs. We then discuss research designs relevant to demonstrating whether a hypothesized mechanism represents a correlate, vulnerability, or predictor of the course of BSDs, as well as important methodological issues. We next present the reward hypersensitivity model of BSD, followed by the social/ circadian rhythm disruption model of BSD. For each model, we review evidence regarding whether the proposed underlying mechanism is associated with BSDs, provides vulnerability to the onset of BSDs, and predicts the course of BSDs. We then present a new integrated reward/circadian rhythm (RCR) dysregulation model ofBSDand discuss how theRCRmodel explains the symptoms, onset, and course of BSDs. We end with recommendations for future research directions. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Clinical Psychology Volume 11 is March 28, 2015. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/catalog/pubdates.aspx for revised estimates.
    Annual Review of Clinical Psychology 01/2015; 11(1). DOI:10.1146/annurev-clinpsy-032814-112902 · 12.92 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Bipolar disorder is a pernicious illness. Compared with the later-onset form, early onset bipolar disorder is associated with worse psychosocial outcomes, and is characterized by rapid cycling and increased risks of substance abuse and suicide attempts. Controlling mood episodes and preventing relapse in this group of pediatric patients requires careful treatment. Here, we review the effectiveness of aripiprazole for bipolar disorder in children and adolescents, with discussion of this drug's unique pharmacological profile and various clinical study outcomes. Aripiprazole acts as a serotonin 5-HT2A receptor antagonist, as well as a partial agonist of the serotonin 5-HT1A and dopamine D2 receptors. It can be safely used in children and adolescents, as it is highly tolerated and shows lower rates of the side effects typically observed with other antipsychotic drugs, including sedation, weight gain, hyperprolactinemia, and extrapyramidal syndrome. The presently reviewed randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and non-RCTs generally reported aripiprazole to be effective and well-tolerated in children and adolescents with bipolar disorder. However, due to the limited number of RCTs, the present conclusions must be evaluated cautiously. Furthermore, aripiprazole cannot yet be considered a preferred treatment for children and adolescents with bipolar disorder, as there is not yet evidence that aripiprazole shows greater efficacy compared to other second-generation antipsychotics. Additional data are needed from future head-to-head comparison studies.
    Adolescent Health, Medicine and Therapeutics 01/2014; 5:211-221. DOI:10.2147/AHMT.S50015