A 12-Week, Double-blind Comparison of Olanzapine vs Haloperidol in the Treatment of Acute Mania

Lilly Research Laboratories, Indianapolis, Ind 46225, USA.
Archives of General Psychiatry (Impact Factor: 14.48). 01/2004; 60(12):1218-26. DOI: 10.1001/archpsyc.60.12.1218
Source: PubMed


This randomized controlled trial compares the efficacy and safety of olanzapine vs haloperidol, as well as the quality of life of patients taking these drugs, in patients with bipolar mania.
The design consisted of 2 successive, 6-week, double-blind periods and compared flexible dosing of olanzapine (5-20 mg/d, n = 234) with haloperidol (3-15 mg/d, n = 219).
Rates of remission (Young-Mania Rating Scale score of < or =12 and 21-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression score of < or =8 at week 6) were similar for olanzapine- and haloperidol-treated patients (52.1% vs 46.1%, respectively; P =.15). For the subgroup of patients whose index episode did not include psychotic features, rates of remission were significantly greater for the olanzapine group compared with the haloperidol group (56.7% vs 41.6%, P =.04). Relapse into an affective episode (mania and/or depression) occurred in 13.1% and 14.8% of olanzapine- and haloperidol-treated patients, respectively (P =.56). Switch to depression occurred significantly more rapidly with haloperidol than with olanzapine when using survival analysis techniques (P =.04), and significantly more haloperidol-treated patients experienced worsening of extrapyramidal symptoms, as indicated by several measures. Weight gain was significantly greater in the olanzapine group compared with the haloperidol group (2.82 vs 0.02 kg, P<.001). The olanzapine group had significant improvement in quality of life on several dimensions compared with the haloperidol group.
These data suggest that olanzapine does not differ from haloperidol in achieving overall remission of bipolar mania. However, haloperidol carries a higher rate of extrapyramidal symptoms, whereas olanzapine is associated with weight gain.

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Available from: Mauricio Tohen, Oct 04, 2015
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    • "Concerning tolerability, clinicians, and patients should be aware of the differing side effect profiles of these compounds. Typical antipsychotics may be more likely to induce depressive symptoms as compared to atypicals (Tohen et al., 2003). In addition, the use of haloperidol is clearly limited by its propensity to induce acute EPSs and later on tardive dyskinesia. "
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    ABSTRACT: Bipolar affective disorder is a serious mental disease associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Good-quality research available to guide treatment strategies remains insufficient, particularly with regard to manic or hypomanic episodes. A critical review of the various stages of mania might be helpful for pharmamaceutical companies and investigators as a prerequisite for the clinical evaluation of potential antimanic properties of medications. The main difficulty remains the comparison between antipsychotics and mood stabilizers such as lithium (with equal efficacy in the acute phase and the prevention of recurrent manic episodes) No consensus has been reached with regard to the treatment of bouts of acute mania in various parts of the world. Controlled clinical trials have, at last, provided irrefutable evidence of the activity of lithium, which has long been used alone, as well asthat of divalproate or its derivatives and, to a lesser extent, carbamazepine. The new antipsychotic agents have more recently established their efficacy, especially aripiprazole, asenapine, quetiapine; olanzapine, risperidone and ziprazidone. It is paradoxical to note that, in Europe, haloperidol is still the reference substance used in clinical trials despite the fact that it is not officially indicated in the treatment of mania. In the USA, lithium, divalproate or antipsychotics can be prescribed as first-line treatment. In Europe, lithium remains the first-line medication, whereas divalproate and atypical antipsychotic agents are used only as second-line therapy. Although both types of medication (antipsychotics, normothymic agents and/or anticonvulsants) have proved to be clinically effective in the management of mania by reducing the mania scores overall, the same does not apply, however, to all symptoms of mania. Factorial approaches to mania have all shown that since there are several clinical forms of mania, several lines of manic symptoms can be identified. Antipsy
    Frontiers in Pharmacology 01/2013; 4:4. DOI:10.3389/fphar.2013.00004 · 3.80 Impact Factor
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    • "Olanzapine Tohen et al. (2003) "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: there is a lack of scientific data regarding speed of action of antimanic treatments, a relevant issue in clinical practice. Objective: to assess differences in the speed of onset of antimanic efficacy between haloperidol (as most studied first-generation antipsychotic) and second-generation antipsychotics. Experimental procedures: meta-analysis of double-blind randomized clinical trials in acute mania, comparing treatment with haloperidol and with second-generation antipsychotics. Search was conducted in MEDLINE and CENTRAL databases (last search: September 2011). Differences in mania scale score reduction at week 1 were assessed. Results: 8 randomized clinical trials fulfilled inclusion criteria and 1 of them was excluded due to low methodological quality. 2037 Manic patients had been treated with antipsychotics in the 7 trials. Haloperidol was found to be significantly more efficacious in the reduction of the mania scale score at week 1. The effect size was small, the Standardized Mean Difference (SMD) being 0.17, with a 95% Confidence Interval ranging from 0.01 to 0.32. Haloperidol was significantly more efficacious than olanzapine (SMD: 0.40 [0.21, 0.59]) and ziprasidone (0.39 [0.18, 0.61]). A non-significant trend towards superiority of haloperidol was found over aripiprazole (SMD: 0.13 [-0.02, 0.19]). There were no significant differences between haloperidol and quetiapine (0.17 [-0.11, 0.44]), and haloperidol and risperidone (SMD: -0.10 [0.30, 0.09]). Conclusions: haloperidol shows a faster onset of antimanic action than second-generation antipsychotics. This difference may be related to D2 affinity. Haloperidol may be considered a treatment option in severely ill manic patients who require urgent relief of symptoms.
    European neuropsychopharmacology: the journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology 07/2012; 23(4). DOI:10.1016/j.euroneuro.2012.05.017 · 4.37 Impact Factor
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    • "Most clinicians and experts believe that typical antipsychotics induce the opposite pole and cause dysphoria and depression. However, this has only been reported concerning haloperidol and perphenazine, suggesting that they could decrease the time to switch into depression compared with atypical antipsychotics [49,50]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Anecdotal reports suggests that most clinicians treat medications as belonging to a class with regard to all therapeutic indications; this means that the whole 'class' of drugs is considered to possesses a specific therapeutic action. The present article explores the possible existence of a true 'class effect' for agents available for the treatment of bipolar disorder. We reviewed the available treatment data from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and explored 16 'agent class'/'treatment issue' cases for bipolar disorder. Four classes of agents were examined: first-generation antipsychotics (FGAs), second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs), antiepileptics and antidepressants, with respect to their efficacy on four treatment issues of bipolar disorder (BD) (acute mania, acute bipolar depression, maintenance against mania, maintenance against depression). From the 16 'agent class'/' treatment issue' cases, only 3 possible class effects were detected, and they all concerned acute mania and antipsychotics. Four effect cases have not been adequately studied (FGAs against acute bipolar depression and in maintenance protection from depression, and antidepressants against acute mania and protection from mania) and they all concern treatment cases with a high risk of switching to the opposite pole, thus research in these areas is poor. There is no 'class effect' at all concerning antiepileptics. The available data suggest that a 'class effect' is the exception rather than the rule in the treatment of BD. However, the possible presence of a 'class effect' concept discourages clinicians from continued scientific training and reading. Focused educational intervention might be necessary to change this attitude.
    Annals of General Psychiatry 03/2011; 10(1):8. DOI:10.1186/1744-859X-10-8 · 1.40 Impact Factor
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