Phase I study of irinotecan and S-1 combination therapy in patients with metastatic gastric cancer.
ABSTRACT Irinotecan plus intravenous 5-fluorouracil with leucovorin is effective against gastrointestinal cancer. S-1 is an oral fluoropyrimidine derivative combining tegafur with the modulators 5-chloro-2,4-dihydroxypyrimidine (a potent dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase inhibitor), and potassium oxonate (an orotate phosphoribosyl transferase inhibitor), in a molar ratio of 1 : 0.4 : 1. S-1 has a high response rate, of about 40%, in advanced gastric cancer. A phase I study was conducted to assess the maximum tolerated dose and the recommended dose of the combination of irinotecan and S-1.
Irinotecan was given intravenously over the course of 90 min on day 1 and S-1 was given orally from days 1 to 14 of a 21-day cycle. The dose of S-1 was 80 mg/m2 per day, given in two divided doses. The dose of irinotecan was escalated in a stepwise fashion from 100 mg/m2 (level 1; n = 3), to 125 mg/m2 (level 2; n = 3), and 150 mg/m2 (level 3; n = 6).
Dose-limiting toxicity did not occur during cycle 1, and the recommended dose for phase II studies was determined to be level 3, which was associated with grade 3 diarrhea in one patient, and with refusal to continue treatment because of prolonged fatigue in two patients. Grade 3 neutropenia developed in one of three patients at level 1 and level 2, and in two of six during cycle 1 of level 3. The recommended dose was determined to be 150 mg/m2 of irinotecan on day 1 and 80 mg/m2 per day of S-1 on days 1 to 14 of a 21-day cycle. Five of seven patients with measurable lesions had a partial response.
A combination of irinotecan and S-1 can be recommended for further phase II studies in patients with gastric cancer.
- SourceAvailable from: Nobuya Ishibashi[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: This multicenter phase II study determined the efficacy and safety of new daily oral S-1 and weekly irinotecan (CPT-11) combination schedule in patients with previously untreated advanced or recurrent colorectal cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients received first-line chemotherapy comprising S-1 80 mg/m(2)/day given on days 3 to 7, 10 to 14, and 17 to 21 and 60 mg/m(2) CPT-11 administered intravenously on days 1, 8, and 15 of a 28-day cycle. RESULTS: A total of 45 eligible patients were enrolled in this study. The overall response rate was 48.9%. Median progression-free survival and median overall survival was 8.1 months and 20.9 months, respectively. The rates of grade 3 or 4 toxicity were as follows: neutropenia, 8.9%; anemia, 4.4%; anorexia, 6.7%; and diarrhea, 6.7%. CONCLUSIONS: This new S-1 and irinotecan combination schedule appeared to be an effective, well-tolerated, and convenient regimen in patients with advanced colorectal cancer as compared with conventional regimens such as FOLFIRI and IRIS.Clinical Medicine Insights: Oncology 01/2013; 7:21-30.
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ABSTRACT: Recent advances in the treatment of metastatic unresectable gastric cancers (MGC) include the development of new antitumor drugs and new regimens for their use. However, the selection of individually designed regimens by gastric cancer (GC) subtype remains problematic. Here, we investigated the clinical usefulness of programmed chemotherapy. MGC patients were classified into three groups by clinical condition. We implemented a chemotherapy program consisting of S-1 combination regimens. Median survival time (MST) of level 1 patients was 416 days (95% CI: 313-506 days), with an overall response rate of 47%. MSTs of level 2 and 3 patients were 208 (95% CI: 153-287 days) and 95 days (95% CI: 28-136 days), respectively. Grade 3-4 toxicities were neutropenia in 12% and anorexia in 6%. All treatment- related toxicities were resolved, and no treatment-related deaths occurred. This program provided reasonable selection of case-matching regimens and may improve the survival of patients with MGC. Further, it may represent the first clinical tool to provide efficient chemotherapy course selection for MGC. Ongoing analysis of newly developed drugs and regimens will allow the efficacy of this chemotherapy program to be improved.PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(6):e38652. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Fluorouracil (5-FU) plus irinotecan combined with bevacizumab has significant activity in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC), but S-1 has become a substitute for continuous infusion of 5-FU and has a very low incidence of hand-foot syndrome. With the S-1 plus irinotecan regimen (SIR), the response rate was 62.5%, and the progression-free survival was 8.0 months. We report here on an update of efficacy and safety of the SIR plus bevacizumab (SIRB) regimen as first line treatment for mCRC patients. Fifty-one eligible patients with histologically confirmed advanced or recurrent colorectal cancer received this treatment. S-1 was administered orally on days 1-14 of a 21-day cycle. Patients were assigned on the basis of body surface area (BSA) to receive one of the following oral doses twice daily: 40 mg, 50 mg, or 60 mg. Irinotecan (150 mg/m(2)) plus bevacizumab (7.5 mg/kg) were administered by intravenous infusion on day 1. Safety analysis identified a grade 3/4 neutropenia rate of 26%. Other grade 3/4 toxicities were diarrhea (8%), nausea (6%), vomiting (2%), and hypertension (8%). The response rate was 67% and the median progression-free survival time was 373 days. The SIRB regimen appears to be highly active and well tolerated as first-line treatment for mCRC.Investigational New Drugs 09/2011; 30(4):1690-6. · 3.50 Impact Factor