[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mucormycosis is the third invasive mycosis in order of importance after candidiasis and aspergillosis and is caused by fungi of the class Zygomycetes. The most important species in order of frequency is Rhizopus arrhizus (oryzae). Identification of the agents responsible for mucormycosis is based on macroscopic and microscopic morphological criteria, carbohydrate assimilation and the maximum temperature compatible with its growth. The incidence of mucormycosis is approximately 1.7 cases per 1000 000 inhabitants per year, and the main risk-factors for the development of mucormycosis are ketoacidosis (diabetic or other), iatrogenic immunosuppression, use of corticosteroids or deferoxamine, disruption of mucocutaneous barriers by catheters and other devices, and exposure to bandages contaminated by these fungi. Mucorales invade deep tissues via inhalation of airborne spores, percutaneous inoculation or ingestion. They colonise a high number of patients but do not cause invasion. Mucormycosis most commonly manifests in the sinuses (39%), lungs (24%), skin (19%), brain (9%), and gastrointestinal tract (7%), in the form of disseminated disease (6%), and in other sites (6%). Clinical diagnosis of mucormycosis is difficult, and is often made at a late stage of the disease or post-mortem. Confirmation of the clinical form requires the combination of symptoms compatible with histological invasion of tissues. The probable diagnosis of mucormycosis requires the combination of various clinical data and the isolation in culture of the fungus from clinical samples. Treatment of mucormycosis requires a rapid diagnosis, correction of predisposing factors, surgical resection, debridement and appropriate antifungal therapy. Liposomal amphotericin B is the therapy of choice for this condition. Itraconazole is considered to be inappropriate and there is evidence of its failure in patients suffering from mucormycosis. Voriconazole is not active in vitro against Mucorales, and failed when used in vivo. Posaconazole and ravuconazole have good activity in vitro. The overall rate of mortality of mucormycosis is approximately 40%.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present review describes the emerging trends of mould infections in developing countries, and highlights the major epidemiological differences from the developed countries.
The limited data available from developing countries suggest an alarming increase in invasive mould infections, especially aspergillosis and mucormycosis, and also a difference in risk factors and causative agents between the developed and developing world. Sino-orbital, cerebral and ophthalmic infections due to Aspergillus flavus are the major clinical types in aspergillosis, after pulmonary aspergillosis. Aspergillus and Fusarium spp. are frequent causes of trauma-associated keratitis in agricultural workers. Rhino-orbito-cerebral presentation associated with uncontrolled diabetes is the predominant mucormycosis. Isolated renal mucormycosis has emerged as a new clinical entity. Apophysomyces elegans and Mucor irregularis are emerging species in these regions and uncommon agents such as Rhizopus homothallicus have also been reported. Many pathogens are geographically restricted, with Pythium insidionum, Rhinocladiella mackenziei and M. irregularis being described almost exclusively from Thailand, Middle East and China, respectively.
Despite limited studies, certain peculiarities have been observed in invasive mould infections in developing countries, including a high incidence of ophthalmic lesions, mucormycosis and aspergillosis; few different clinical presentations; and a varied spectrum of pathogens involved in such lesions.
Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases 07/2011; 24(6):521-6. · 4.87 Impact Factor
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