Prophylactic oophorectomy: a morphologic and immunohistochemical study.
ABSTRACT The tumorigenesis of ovarian carcinoma is poorly understood. The authors studied morphologic features and immunohistochemical expression patterns of neoplasia-associated markers in prophylactically removed ovaries, normal ovaries, and papillary serous ovarian carcinomas to identify possible preneoplastic changes in ovarian surface epithelium.
Morphologic features and immunohistochemical expression patterns of CA-125, Ki-67, p53, E-cadherin, and Bcl-2 were evaluated in 21 normal ovaries, 31 ovaries that were removed prophylactically for increased carcinoma risk, and 7 ovarian papillary serous carcinomas. Representative slides from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue blocks were submitted to immunohistochemical staining and were evaluated independently by three gynecologic pathologists. For statistical analyses, Fisher exact tests, multivariate analyses, Spearman rank correlation coefficients, Wald statistics, Kruskal-Wallis tests, and Mann-Whitney tests were used. Immunohistochemical staining results were correlated with morphologic findings.
The authors found progressive increases in reactivity with the lowest expression in normal ovarian epithelium, stronger expression in epithelium from prophylactically removed ovaries, and the highest expression in carcinomas for Ki-67 and p53. A similar trend was observed for CA-125. Positivity for Ki-67 and p53 was seen predominantly in the epithelium of inclusion cysts and deep invaginations, including those areas that had been identified as hyperplastic or dysplastic on routine hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections.
The current results suggest biologic/molecular evidence for the existence of preneoplastic changes in ovarian surface epithelium and support the previously proposed concept of ovarian dysplasia. Subtle morphologic alterations of the ovarian epithelium may be biologically significant.
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ABSTRACT: Ovarian and tubal dysplasia may be precursors to ovarian cancer. The goal of this study was to check whether these histopathological lesions would be found after ovulation induction using tamoxifen, clomiphene citrate and letrozole. Seventy-two rats were divided into four groups. In the first group, 24 rats received normal saline. The second group (16 rats) received clomiphene citrate for six cycles. The third group, divided into two sub-groups of eight rats each, were stimulated with tamoxifen for six cycles, with a dosage, respectively, of 0.4 and 0.8 mg/kg/day. In the last group, eight rats received letrozole 0.1 mg/kg/day and eight other rats received letrozole 0.5 mg/kg/day, for six cycles. Once the six cycles had been completed the rats were killed in order to remove ovaries and tubes for histopathological analysis (morphological, p53 and Ki67 immunohistochemical assessment). Histopathological lesions were found in both ovaries and tubes. The mean ovarian dysplasia score was significantly higher in the tamoxifen group whatever the dosage (p = 0.006 and 0.0002) and in the letrozole group with 0.5 mg/kg/day (p = 0.0002) compared with the control group. The mean tubal dysplasia score was significantly higher in all groups that received drug treatment compared with the control group, whatever the dosage used. The proliferation index (Ki67) was significantly higher in the tamoxifen and letrozole groups while no significant difference was found for apoptosis marker p53. Ovulation induction may induce histopathological abnormalities in ovaries and tubes with a different immunohistochemical profile in comparison with salpingo-oophorectomies for genetic risk.Archives of Gynecology 04/2014; · 0.91 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Faced with the catastrophic prognosis for ovarian cancer due to the fact that it is most often diagnosed late at the peritoneal carcinomatosis stage, screening and early detection could probably reduce the mortality rate. A better understanding of the molecular characteristics of the different ovarian cancer subtypes and their specific molecular signatures is indispensable prior to development of new screening strategies. We discuss here the early natural history of ovarian cancer and its origins.BioMed research international. 01/2014; 2014:639252.
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ABSTRACT: Ovarian epithelial dysplasia was initially described in material from prophylactic oophorectomies for BReast CAncer gene (BRCA) mutation. Similar histopathological abnormalities have been revealed after ovulation stimulation. Given that tamoxifen (TAM) has a clomid-like effect and is sometimes used to induce ovulation, we studied the morphological features and immunohistochemical expression patterns of neoplasia-associated markers in adnexectomies previously exposed to TAM for breast cancer. We blindly reviewed 173 histopathological slides of adnexectomies according to three groups - oophorectomie sassociated with TAM exposure (n=42), oophorectomies associated with clomiphene exposure (n=15) and a spontaneously fertile non cancerous control group (n=116). Morphological features (with an ovarian and tubal dysplasia scoring system) and immunohistochemical expression patterns of Ki-67, p53 and Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1 is an enzyme significantly associated with earlystage ovarian cancer) were evaluated and correlated. Mean tubal dysplasia score was significantly higher in the TAM group and clomiphene group than in controls (respectively 7.8 vs 3.5, P<0.007 and 6.8 vs 3.5, P=0.008). There is no statistical difference for the ovarian score in TAM group in comparison with the control group whereas we found a significant score for clomiphen group (6.5, P=0.009). Increased ALDH1 expression was observed in the two exposed group whereas expression patterns of Ki67 and p53 were moderate. Interestingly, ALDH1 expression was low in non-dysplastic epithelium, high in dysplasia, and constantly low in the two carcinoma. Furthermore, we confirm our previous results showing that ALDH1 may be a useful tissue biomarker in the subtle histopathological diagnosis of tubo-ovarian dysplasia.European journal of histochemistry: EJH 01/2014; 58(2):2251. · 2.41 Impact Factor