Postantibiotic and sub-MIC effects of benzylpenicillin against Streptococcus pneumoniae with different susceptibilities for penicillin.
ABSTRACT The purpose of the study was to examine whether penicillin-susceptible and nonsusceptible strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae exhibited different pharmacodynamic responses to benzylpenicillin.
The postantibiotic effects (PAEs) and the postantibiotic sub-MIC effects (PA SMEs) were investigated by optical density against strains of S. pneumoniae with different susceptibilities to benzylpenicillin. To validate the data, the PAE and PA SME of one susceptible and one resistant strain were also tested with the viable count method. The post-MIC effects (PMEs) were studied in an in vitro kinetic model, simulating human pharmacokinetics with a half-life of 1 h and a time above MIC of approximately 20% of 24 h.
There were no differences with respect to the PAEs, PA SMEs and PMEs of benzylpenicillin for the various strains of S. pneumoniae, irrespective of their susceptibility to penicillin. For both some of the susceptible and resistant strains investigated, longer PA SMEs at 0.2 and 0.3 x MIC were noted, indicating that these parameters might be more dependent on the type of strain rather than on the susceptibility status.
No differences in the pharmacodynamic response after similar drug exposure were seen for S. pneumoniae strains with different penicillin susceptibility.
- Clinical Microbiology and Infection - CLIN MICROBIOL INFECT. 01/1997; 3(1):73-81.
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ABSTRACT: The postantibiotic effect (PAE) (10 times the MIC of quinolones, 5 times the MIC of macrolides) and postantibiotic sub-MIC effect (PAE-SME) at 0.125, 0.25, and 0.5 times the MIC were determined for levofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, erythromycin, azithromycin, and clarithromycin against 20 pneumococci. Quinolone PAEs ranged between 0.5 and 6.5 h, and macrolide PAEs ranged between 1 and 6 h. Measurable PAE-SMEs (in hours) at the three concentrations were 1 to 5, 1 to 8, and 1 to 8, respectively, for quinolones and 1 to 8, 1 to 8, and 1 to 6, respectively, for macrolides.Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 06/1998; 42(5):1253-5. · 4.57 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: An in vitro kinetic model was used to study the relation between pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) parameters for antimicrobial effect, e.g., the time above MIC (T>MIC), maximum concentration in serum (C(max)), and area under the concentration-time curve (AUC). Streptococcus pyogenes and Escherichia coli were exposed to cefotaxime, and the activity of amoxicillin against four strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae with different susceptibilities to penicillin was studied. The drug elimination rate varied so that the T>MIC ranged from 20 to 100% during 24 h, while the AUC and/or the initial concentration (C(max)) were kept constant. For S. pyogenes and E. coli, the maximal antimicrobial effect (E(max)) at 24 h occurred when the antimicrobial concentration exceeded the MIC for 50 and 80% of the strains tested, respectively. The penicillin-susceptible pneumococci (MIC, 0.03 mg/liter) and the penicillin-intermediate strain (MIC, 0.25 mg/liter) showed maximal killing by amoxicillin at a T>MIC of 50%. For a strain for which the MIC was 2 mg/liter, C(max) needed to be increased to achieve the E(max). Under the condition that C(max) was 10 times the MIC, E(max) was obtained at a T>MIC of 60%, indicating that C(max), in addition to T>MIC, may be an important parameter for antimicrobial effect on moderately penicillin-resistant pneumococci. For the strain for which the MIC was 4 mg/liter, the reduction of bacteria varied from -0.4 to -3.6 log(10) CFU/ml at a T>MIC of 100%, despite an initial antimicrobial concentration of 10 times the MIC. Our studies have shown that the in vitro kinetic model is a useful complement to animal models for studying the PK-PD relationship for antimicrobial effect of antibiotics.Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 09/2001; 45(9):2436-40. · 4.57 Impact Factor