To evaluate whether the varicella vaccine virus is detected in breast milk after vaccination of breast-feeding women and whether there is serologic evidence of exposure of the infant to varicella virus after maternal vaccination.
We enrolled women identified as varicella seronegative during routine prenatal screening at Group Health Cooperative. Participants received the first dose of varicella vaccine at least 6 weeks postpartum and the second dose at least 4 weeks later. They collected ten breast milk samples after each vaccine dose. Breast milk samples were tested for varicella zoster virus by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Serum specimens were collected from the mothers 1 month after each vaccine dose, and peripheral blood from their infants was collected onto filter spots 1 month after the mother's second dose. These samples were tested for varicella immunoglobulin (Ig) G by whole-virus enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), or by the more sensitive glycoprotein ELISA. When possible, filter spots from the infants were also tested by PCR for the presence of varicella zoster virus deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA).
Twelve women were enrolled; all seroconverted after the first vaccine dose. Varicella DNA was not detected by PCR in any of the 217 postvaccination breast milk specimens. None of the infants was seropositive. Samples from six infants were tested for varicella zoster virus DNA by PCR, and all were negative.
We found no evidence of varicella vaccine virus excretion in breast milk. These findings suggest that postpartum vaccination of varicella-susceptible women need not be delayed because of breast-feeding.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: All pregnant women should be offered screening for asymptomatic bacteriuria, syphilis, rubella, and hepatitis B and human immunodeficiency virus infection early in pregnancy. Women at increased risk should be tested for hepatitis C infection, gonorrhea, and chlamydia. All women should be questioned about their history of chickenpox and genital or orolabial herpes. Routine screening for bacterial vaginosis is not recommended. Influenza vaccination is recommended in women who will be in their second or third trimester of pregnancy during flu season. Women should be offered vaginorectal culture screening for group B streptococcal infection at 35 to 37 weeks' gestation. Colonized women and women with a history of group B streptococcal bacteriuria should be offered intrapartum intravenous antibiotics. Screening for gestational diabetes remains controversial. Women should be offered labor induction after 41 weeks' gestation.
American family physician 05/2005; 71(8):1555-60. · 2.18 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Varicella infection during the first and second trimester of pregnancy may increase the risk for congenital varicella syndrome 0.5-1.5% above the baseline risk for major malformation. Third trimester infection may lead to maternal pneumonia which can be life threatening if not treated appropriately. Varicella-zoster immune globulin (VZIG) should be administered as soon as possible preferably within 96 h from exposure to prevent maternal infection or subsequent complications. Later than 96 h, the effectiveness of VZIG has not been evaluated. Neonatal varicella is more severe if maternal rash appears 5 days prior to or 2 days after delivery. The newborn should be given VZIG immediately. Intravenous acyclovir is recommended for maternal pneumonia and severely affected neonate. No controlled study has yet evaluated the effectiveness of acyclovir or valacyclovir for postexposure prophylaxis to pregnant women or neonates. Unlike primary varicella infection in pregnancy, herpes zoster has not been documented to cause complications unless in the disseminated form. The advent of advanced imaging techniques and molecular biotechniques has improved prenatal diagnosis. With increase use of vaccination, the incidence of chickenpox in pregnancy is expected to decline in the future.
Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.