Postpartum varicella vaccination: is the vaccine virus excreted in breast milk?
ABSTRACT To evaluate whether the varicella vaccine virus is detected in breast milk after vaccination of breast-feeding women and whether there is serologic evidence of exposure of the infant to varicella virus after maternal vaccination.
We enrolled women identified as varicella seronegative during routine prenatal screening at Group Health Cooperative. Participants received the first dose of varicella vaccine at least 6 weeks postpartum and the second dose at least 4 weeks later. They collected ten breast milk samples after each vaccine dose. Breast milk samples were tested for varicella zoster virus by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Serum specimens were collected from the mothers 1 month after each vaccine dose, and peripheral blood from their infants was collected onto filter spots 1 month after the mother's second dose. These samples were tested for varicella immunoglobulin (Ig) G by whole-virus enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), or by the more sensitive glycoprotein ELISA. When possible, filter spots from the infants were also tested by PCR for the presence of varicella zoster virus deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA).
Twelve women were enrolled; all seroconverted after the first vaccine dose. Varicella DNA was not detected by PCR in any of the 217 postvaccination breast milk specimens. None of the infants was seropositive. Samples from six infants were tested for varicella zoster virus DNA by PCR, and all were negative.
We found no evidence of varicella vaccine virus excretion in breast milk. These findings suggest that postpartum vaccination of varicella-susceptible women need not be delayed because of breast-feeding.
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ABSTRACT: Congenital varicella syndrome, maternal varicella-zoster virus pneumonia and neonatal varicella infection are associated with serious fetomaternal morbidity and, not infrequently, mortality. Vaccination against varicella-zoster virus can prevent the disease, and outbreak control limits the exposure of pregnant women to the infectious agent. Maternal varicella-zoster immunoglobulin administration before rash development, with or without antiviral medication, can modify the progression of the disease.BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology 05/2011; 118(10):1155-62. · 3.76 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background Healthcare workers (HCWs) have the potential for increased exposure to infectious disease resulting from the provision of patient care. Pregnancy can confer specific problems in some infections for the mother and her unborn child. Aims To discuss the viral infections encountered in the UK that constitute a particular risk to the pregnant HCW: human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, varicella-zoster virus, herpes simplex virus, human parvovirus B19, cytomegalovirus, rubella, measles, enteroviruses, mumps and influenza. Evidence for nosocomial transmission, clinical aspects specific to pregnancy, and recommendations to protect the pregnant HCW at work are included. Methods Medline, EMBASE and Pubmed were searched using a list of keywords specific to each viral infection, including ‘nosocomial’, ‘occupational’ and ‘healthcare workers’. References from the bibliographies of articles identified were reviewed for relevant material. Findings The evidence for increased risk in the healthcare setting for many of these infections, outside of outbreaks, is weak, possibly because of the application of standard protective infection control measures or because risk of community exposure is greater. The pregnant HCW should be advised on protective behaviour in both settings. Potential interventions include vaccination and reducing the likelihood of exposure through universal precautions, infection control and redeployment. Conclusion Protection of the pregnant HCW is the responsibility of the individual, antenatal care provider and employer, and is made possible through awareness of the risks and potential interventions both before and after exposure. If exposure occurs or if the HCW develops an infective illness, urgent specialist advice is required.The Journal of hospital infection 01/2014; · 3.01 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Fetal varicella syndrome (FVS) is due to transplacental infection by the Varicella zoster virus following maternal infection. The risks for the fetus and neonate depend on the timing. When varicella occurs around delivery, it often leads to disseminated neonatal varicella. When varicella occurs during pregnancy, transmission can occur, but is usually asymptomatic; some infants develop zoster postnatally and a few have FVS. Before 20 weeks' gestation, FVS can occur, with an incidence of about 1%. The lesions can affect the skin, limbs, central and autonomous nervous systems, eyes, cause calcifications, and growth retardation; mortality is high. Lesions typically follow one or several nerve territories, suggesting that damage results from in utero zoster following primary fetal infection. There has been little study of prenatal diagnosis of FVS. Serial ultrasound examination can detect various anomalies, magnetic resonance imaging can be of use to investigate for microphthamia and cerebral lesions, and amniocentesis can diagnose viral transmission. Prevention strategies include vaccination and post-exposure prophylaxis with immune globulin and/or antivirals. Perspectives for treating infected fetuses in utero require further research.Prenatal Diagnosis 04/2012; 32(6):511-8. · 2.68 Impact Factor