Lipoxygenase and cyclo-oxygenase products in the control of regional kidney blood flow in rabbits.
ABSTRACT 1. The aim of the present study was to examine the roles of cyclo-oxygenase (COX)- and lipoxygenase (LOX)-dependent arachidonate signalling cascades in the control of regional kidney blood flow. 2. In pentobarbitone-anaesthetized rabbits treated with NG-nitro-l-arginine and glyceryl trinitrate to 'clamp' nitric oxide, we determined the effects of ibuprofen (a COX inhibitor) and esculetin (a LOX inhibitor) on resting systemic and renal haemodynamics and responses to renal arterial infusions of vasoconstrictors. 3. Ibuprofen increased mean arterial pressure (14 +/- 5%) and reduced medullary laser Doppler flux (MLDF; 26 +/- 6%) when administered with esculetin. A similar pattern of responses was observed when ibuprofen was given alone, although the reduction in MLDF was not statistically significant. Esculetin tended to increase renal blood flow (RBF; 16 +/- 7%) and MLDF (28 +/- 13%) when given alone, but not when combined with ibuprofen. 4. After vehicle, renal arterial infusions of noradrenaline, angiotensin II and endothelin-1 reduced RBF and cortical laser Doppler flux (CLDF), but not MLDF. In contrast, renal arterial [Phe2,Ile3,Orn8]-vasopressin reduced MLDF but not RBF or CLDF. Ibuprofen alone did not significantly affect these responses. Esculetin, when given alone, but not when combined with ibuprofen, enhanced noradrenaline-induced renal vasoconstriction. In contrast, esculetin did not significantly affect responses to [Phe2,Ile3,Orn8]-vasopressin, angiotensin II or endothelin-1. 5. We conclude that COX products contribute to the maintenance of arterial pressure and renal medullary perfusion under 'nitric oxide clamp' conditions, but not to renal haemodynamic responses to the vasoconstrictors we tested. Lipoxygenase products may blunt noradrenaline-induced vasoconstriction, but our observations may, instead, reflect LOX-independent effects of esculetin.
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ABSTRACT: 1. Angiotensin (Ang) II has multiple actions in the renal medullary circulation. It can induce vasodilatation and blunt the response of medullary blood flow (MBF) to renal nerve activation through AT(1) receptor-mediated release of nitric oxide (NO) and/or vasodilator prostaglandins. These actions require high intravascular and/or intratubular AngII concentrations, so are not apparent under physiological conditions. 2. Nevertheless, these mechanisms blunt the responsiveness of MBF to AT(1) receptor-mediated vasoconstriction. When these protective mechanisms fail, as when oxidative stress reduces NO bioavailability in the medullary circulation, AngII reduces MBF. If sustained, reduced MBF leads to the development of hypertension. 3. Chronic activation of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) induces oxidative stress in the kidney. Therefore, MBF may be reduced in models of hypertension associated with RAS activation both because AngII levels per se are increased and because of increased responsiveness of MBF to AngII-induced vasoconstriction. 4. Endogenous AngII enhances the responsiveness of MBF to renal nerve stimulation, whereas NO blunts it. Chronic RAS activation and/or oxidative stress should therefore be expected to enhance MBF responses to renal nerve stimulation. Consistent with this, reductions in MBF induced by renal nerve stimulation are enhanced in rabbits with AngII-induced hypertension, renovascular hypertension or after 9 weeks of fat feeding. 5. We conclude that the ability of endogenous AngII to reduce MBF and enhance the response of MBF to activation of the renal nerves could contribute to the development of hypertension under conditions of RAS activation, especially if accompanied by increased renal sympathetic nerve activity.Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology 07/2009; 37(2):e58-69. · 2.41 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Arachidonic acid (AA) metabolites from the 15-lipoxygenase-1 (15-LO-1) pathway, trihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids (THETAs) and hydroxy-epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (HEETAs), are endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factors (EDHFs) and relax rabbit arteries. Rabbit vascular 15-LO-1 expression, THETA and HEETA synthesis, and nitric oxide and prostaglandin-independent relaxations to acetylcholine (ACh) and AA decreased with age (neonates to 16-wk-old). We characterized age-dependent ACh-hypotensive responses in vivo in 1-, 4-, 8-, and 16-wk-old rabbits and the contribution of THETAs and HEETAs to these responses. In anesthetized rabbits, blood pressure responses to ACh (4-4,000 ng/kg) were determined in the presence of vehicle or various inhibitors. ACh responses decreased with age (P > 0.001). In the absence or presence of N(omega)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME) and indomethacin (Indo), maximum responses in 1 (-54.7 +/- 7.4 and -37.9 +/- 3.9%)- and 4 (-48.8 +/- 2.4 and -35.5 +/- 7.8%)-wk-old rabbits were higher than 8 (-30.0 +/- 2.8 and -26.6 +/- 4.4%)- and 16 (-36.7 +/- 3.5 and -27.3 +/- 10%)-wk-old rabbits. A lipoxygenase inhibitor, BW755C, reduced THETA and HEETA synthesis in mesenteric arteries. In the presence of Indo and N(omega)-nitro-l-arginine, ACh relaxations were reduced by BW755C to a greater extent in the mesenteric arteries from the younger rabbits. In 4-wk-old rabbits treated with l-NAME and Indo, the maximum ACh hypotension was reduced by the potassium channel inhibitors apamin and charybdotoxin to -6.9 +/- 0.9%, by apamin alone to -19.5 +/- 1.4%, and by BW755C to -18.8 +/- 3.5%. The present study indicates that the age-related decrease in ACh-induced hypotension is mediated by the decreased synthesis of the 15-LO-1 metabolites THETAs and HEETAs.AJP Heart and Circulatory Physiology 08/2008; 295(1):H89-96. · 4.01 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Endothelial 15-lipoxygenase-1 (15-LO-1) metabolites of arachidonic acid (AA), 11,12,15-trihydroxyeicosatrienoic acid (THETA) and 15-hydroxy-11,12-epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (HEETA) and nitric oxide (NO) mediate relaxations to acetylcholine (ACH). However, interactions between NO and the 15-LO-1 pathway have not been explored. Therefore, the effect of physiological and pharmacological concentrations of NO on 15-LO activity and relaxation was studied in rabbit aorta. In indomethacin-treated aortic rings, maximal ACH relaxations of 91.3±4.0%, decreased to 54.5±3.0% by the NO synthase inhibitor, nitro-l-arginine (LNA), to 49.8±3% by the guanylate cyclase (GC) inhibitor, 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one, to 63.7±4.9% by the lipoxygenase (LO) inhibitor, nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) and were completely inhibited by the combination of LNA and NDGA. AA relaxations were not affected by GC inhibition but were reduced by LO inhibition. The NO donor, dipropylenetriamine-NONOate (DPTA) caused concentration-related relaxations (EC(50)=4.7×10(-6)M). Aortic metabolism of (14)C-AA to THETA and HEETA was not altered by EC(50) concentrations of DPTA but were reduced 10-fold by 10(-3)M DPTA. In LNA-treated aorta, DPTA (3×10(-6)M) caused relaxations of 38.2.5±4%. Maximum relaxations to ACH did not differ in the presence and absence 3×10(-6)M DPTA (49.5±5% and 44.2±4%, respectively). These results indicate that NO and 15-LO-1 act in parallel to mediate ACH relaxations and NO does not alter 15-LO-1 activity.Vascular Pharmacology 12/2011; 56(1-2):106-12. · 3.21 Impact Factor