Lineage, maturity, and phenotype of uterine murine dendritic cells throughout gestation indicate a protective role in maintaining pregnancy.
ABSTRACT Dendritic cells (DCs) are known to play a major role in the induction, maintenance, and regulation of immune responses. Recently, DCs have been described to be present at the feto-maternal interface in human decidua. However, only limited information is available about DC presence, phenotype, and--more importantly--function throughout gestation. Thus, we analyzed local (uterine) and systemic (blood) DCs in a murine model. DBA/2J mated CBA/J females with vaginal plugs were separated and killed on Gestation Days (GDs) 1.5, 3.5, 5.5, 6.5, 7.5, 8.5, 10.5, 13.5, 15.5, or 17.5. Frequency of uterine and blood CD11c+ DC, phenotype (coexpression of CD8alpha and major histocompatibility complex class II [MHC II] antigens), and presence of intracellular cytokines (interleukins 12 and 10) were determined by flow cytometry. The morphology of DC in the pregnant uterus was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. In uterus, the relative number of CD11c+ cells increased from GD 5.5, reaching a plateau on GD 9.5 until GD 17.5, while a transient peak of systemic CD11c+ cells was found on GD 8.5 and 10.5. The vast majority of uterine DCs were CD8alpha- and thus, belonged to the myeloid lineage. Interestingly, a significant peak of lymphoid DC was present on GD 1.5 and 5.5. Further, significantly more intracellular interleukin 10 than interleukin 12 was present in CD11c+ cells. Interestingly, mature DCs (MHC II+) were diminished from GD 5.5 to 8.5. Characterization of CD11c+ cell kinetics in uterus and blood reveals variation of phenotype during pregnancy, pointing toward an eminent immunoregulatory role of DCs throughout gestation at the feto-maternal interface.
- SourceAvailable from: Ana C Zenclussen[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The heme-degrading enzyme heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) has cytoprotective, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Moreover, HO-1 is reportedly involved in suppressing destructive immune responses associated with inflammation, autoimmune diseases, and allograft rejection. During pregnancy, maternal tolerance to foreign fetal antigens is a prerequisite for successful embryo implantation and fetal development. Here, HO-1 has been implicated in counteracting the overwhelming inflammatory immune responses towards fetal allo-antigens, thereby contributing to fetal acceptance. Accordingly, HO-1 ablation negatively impacts the critical steps of pregnancy such as fertilization, implantation, placentation, and fetal growth. In the present review, we summarize recent data on the immune modulatory capacity of HO-1 towards allo-antigens expressed by the semi-allogeneic fetus and organ allografts. In this regard, HO-1 has been shown to promote alloantigen tolerance by blocking dendritic cell (DC) maturation resulting in reduced T cell responses and increased numbers of regulatory T cells. Moreover, HO-1 is suggested to shift the uterine cytokine milieu towards a protective Th2 profile and protects fetal tissue from apoptosis by upregulating anti-apoptotic molecules. Thus, HO-1 is not only a pivotal regulator of the initial steps of pregnancy; but also, an important player in supporting the maternal immune system in tolerating the fetus.Frontiers in Pharmacology 12/2014; 5. DOI:10.3389/fphar.2014.00288
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ABSTRACT: Multiple mechanisms underlie the surprising willingness of mothers to tolerate the semi-allogeneic fetal tissues during pregnancy. Chief among these is the expression of the HLA-G molecules that has been largely demonstrated to be responsible for reprogramming the local maternal immune response towards tolerance. We recently identified a subset of tolerogenic dendritic cells, DC-10 that secrete high amounts of IL-10 and express high levels of HLA-G and its ligand ILT4. DC-10 are present in the peripheral blood and are essential in inducing adaptive regulatory T cells. We investigated the presence of DC-10 and HLA-G-expressing CD4(+) T cells in human decidua in the first trimester of pregnancy. Results showed that these cells are highly represented in human decidua as compared to the peripheral blood. This is the first report describing decidual DC-10 and CD4(+)HLA-G(+) T cells, strongly suggesting that they may accumulate or be induced at the fetal maternal interface to promote tolerance.Human immunology 12/2012; 74(4). DOI:10.1016/j.humimm.2012.11.031 · 2.28 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Dendritic cells (DCs), which are biased toward a tolerogenic profile, play a pivotal role in tissue-remodeling processes and angiogenesis at the maternal-fetal interface. Here, we analyzed the effect of trophoblast cells on the functional profile of DCs to gain insight on the tolerogenic mechanisms underlying the human placental-maternal dialog at early stages of gestation. DCs were differentiated from peripheral blood monocytes obtained from fertile women (n = 21), in the presence of interleukin (IL)-4 and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor during 5 days in culture. Then, DCs were cultured with trophoblast cells (Swan-71 cell line obtained from normal cytotrophoblast, at 7 weeks) for 24 h and for an additional 24 h in the absence or presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Escherichia coli. DCs were recovered and used for flow cytometry, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, RT-PCR and suppression and migration assays. Trophoblast cells significantly prevented the increase in CD83 expression induced by LPS without affecting the expression of CD86, CD40 and human leukocyte antigen-DR (P < 0.05). Trophoblast cells significantly decreased the production of IL-12p70 and tumor necrosis factor-α, while it increased the production of IL-10 (P < 0.05). No changes were observed in the production of IL-6 and monocyte chemotactic protein-1. The culture of DCs with trophoblast cells, also suppressed the stimulation of the allogeneic response triggered by LPS (P < 0.05). Conditioned DCs were able to increase the frequency of CD4 + CD25 + Foxp3 cells and this effect was accompanied by an increase in indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase expression in DCs (P < 0.05). The interaction of DCs with trophoblast cells promotes the differentiation of DCs into cells with a predominantly tolerogenic profile that could contribute to a tolerogenic microenvironment at the maternal-fetal interface.Human Reproduction 06/2012; 27(9):2598-606. DOI:10.1093/humrep/des208 · 4.59 Impact Factor