Relationship between blood glucose control, pathogenesis and progression of diabetic nephropathy.
ABSTRACT The present review briefly discusses evidence that the risk of a rapid decline of glomerular function abruptly increases when glycated hemoglobin is steadily higher than 7.5% and postprandial blood glucose is >200 mg/dl. The capacity to accomplish and to maintain steadily tightly controlled blood glucose levels is scanty using the currently implemented hypoglycemic drugs. Moreover, it must be highlighted that most patients with type 2 diabetes, particularly when renal damage does occur, have arterial hypertension. Several studies suggested that the development of ESRD is prevented significantly better by drugs that modulate the renin angiotensin system than by other compounds in patients with type 1 and 2 diabetes with overt diabetic nephropathy. However, a recent trial, the study Antihypertensive and Lipid Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial (ALLHAT), which compared lisinopril, chlorthalidone, and amlodipine in a large population of patients with arterial hypertension, either associated or not with diabetes, demonstrated that the development of both coronary heart diseases and renal complications was equally prevented by the three drugs. One word of caveat, however, needs to be raised concerning one of the results of the ALLHAT study: the higher risk of developing new-onset diabetes among hypertensive patients who are not treated with lisinopril. Even if it is true that this latter side effect was not accompanied by a worse outcome of macrovascular and renal complications during the 5-yr follow-up period, one cannot rule out the possibility that this might be the case during more prolonged periods of follow-up in the future. Thus, the advantage of a lower cost in the treatment of hypertension with diuretics as compared with other drugs, with similar degree of success in the prevention of vascular complications, should be weighed also taking into consideration the burden of a higher rate of occurrence of new-onset diabetes.
Article: A systematic review of studies that aim to determine which outcomes to measure in clinical trials in children.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: In clinical trials the selection of appropriate outcomes is crucial to the assessment of whether one intervention is better than another. Selection of inappropriate outcomes can compromise the utility of a trial. However, the process of selecting the most suitable outcomes to include can be complex. Our aim was to systematically review studies that address the process of selecting outcomes or outcome domains to measure in clinical trials in children. We searched Cochrane databases (no date restrictions) in December 2006; and MEDLINE (1950 to 2006), CINAHL (1982 to 2006), and SCOPUS (1966 to 2006) in January 2007 for studies of the selection of outcomes for use in clinical trials in children. We also asked a group of experts in paediatric clinical research to refer us to any other relevant studies. From these articles we extracted data on the clinical condition of interest, description of the method used to select outcomes, the people involved in the selection process, the outcomes selected, and limitations of the method as defined by the authors. The literature search identified 8,889 potentially relevant abstracts. Of these, 70 were retrieved, and 25 were included in the review. These studies described the work of 13 collaborations representing various paediatric specialties including critical care, gastroenterology, haematology, psychiatry, neurology, respiratory paediatrics, rheumatology, neonatal medicine, and dentistry. Two groups utilised the Delphi technique, one used the nominal group technique, and one used both methods to reach a consensus about which outcomes should be measured in clinical trials. Other groups used semistructured discussion, and one group used a questionnaire-based survey. The collaborations involved clinical experts, research experts, and industry representatives. Three groups involved parents of children affected by the particular condition. Very few studies address the appropriate choice of outcomes for clinical research with children, and in most paediatric specialties no research has been undertaken. Among the studies we did assess, very few involved parents or children in selecting outcomes that should be measured, and none directly involved children. Research should be undertaken to identify the best way to involve parents and children in assessing which outcomes should be measured in clinical trials.PLoS Medicine 05/2008; 5(4):e96. · 16.27 Impact Factor