Laboratory of Molecular Oncology and Cell Cycle Regulation, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Departments of Medicine, Abramson Cancer Center, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA.
p53 plays a central role in the cellular response to stressful stimuli, including DNA damage, aberrant growth signals, and hypoxia. Upon activation, it binds to a specific DNA binding motif and functions to transcriptionally activate or repress different groups of genes. The biologic outcome of these events can lead to cell-cycle arrest, DNA repair, or apoptosis. While many downstream targets of p53 have been identified, the factors that determine which of these outcomes will occur in an individual cell are less clear. In this study, we show that caspase 10, an initiator caspase, is induced in response to DNA damaging chemotherapeutic agents in a p53-dependent manner. Following treatment with etoposide or adriamycin, induction of caspase 10 occurred at both the mRNA and protein levels. In contrast, DNA damage did not affect levels of caspase 8, another initiator caspase with significant structural and functional homology to caspase 10. By chromatin immunoprecipitation assay, p53 bound in vivo to multiple p53-specific binding sites located within the caspase 10 gene locus, suggesting that caspase 10 is a direct transcriptional target of p53. Upregulation of caspase 10 may represent one factor that determines how p53 activation leads to cellular apoptosis following DNA damage.
"Activity of caspase-10 has been implicated in the response to a number of chemotherapeutic agents including etoposide, doxorubicin, arsenic trioxide and paclitaxel –. This can be mediated by p53-dependent, or histone-H3 acetylation-dependent modulation of the CASP10 locus . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Resistance to apoptosis remains a significant problem in drug resistance and treatment failure in malignant disease. NO-aspirin is a novel drug that has efficacy against a number of solid tumours, and can inhibit Wnt signaling, and although we have shown Wnt signaling to be important for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cell proliferation and survival inhibition of Wnt signaling does not appear to be involved in the induction of ALL cell death. Treatment of B lineage ALL cell lines and patient ALL cells with NO-aspirin induced rapid apoptotic cell death mediated via the extrinsic death pathway. Apoptosis was dependent on caspase-10 in association with the formation of the death-inducing signaling complex (DISC) incorporating pro-caspase-10 and tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNF-R1). There was no measurable increase in TNF-R1 or TNF-α in response to NO-aspirin, suggesting that the process was ligand-independent. Consistent with this, expression of silencer of death domain (SODD) was reduced following NO-aspirin exposure and lentiviral mediated shRNA knockdown of SODD suppressed expansion of transduced cells confirming the importance of SODD for ALL cell survival. Considering that SODD and caspase-10 are frequently over-expressed in ALL, interfering with these proteins may provide a new strategy for the treatment of this and potentially other cancers.
PLoS ONE 07/2014; 9(7):e103383. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0103383 · 3.23 Impact Factor
"It is well known that p53 is able to arrest the cell cycle, activate DNA repair proteins when DNA has sustained damage, and initiate apoptosis if the damage is irreparable
[31,38]. To assess the hypothesis that MTA induces p53 expression caused by DNA damage, we studied the expression of p53 and related genes upon MTA exposure. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Metastatic melanoma is a lethal skin cancer and its incidence is rising every year. It represents a challenge for oncologist, as the current treatment options are non-curative in the majority of cases; therefore, the effort to find and/or develop novel compounds is mandatory. Pemetrexed (Alimta®, MTA) is a multitarget antifolate that inhibits folate-dependent enzymes: thymidylate synthase, dihydrofolate reductase and glycinamide ribonucleotide formyltransferase, required for de novo synthesis of nucleotides for DNA replication. It is currently used in the treatment of mesothelioma and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and has shown clinical activity in other tumors such as breast, colorectal, bladder, cervical, gastric and pancreatic cancer. However, its effect in human melanoma has not been studied yet.
In the current work we studied the effect of MTA on four human melanoma cell lines A375, Hs294T, HT144 and MeWo and in two NSCLC cell lines H1299 and Calu-3. We have found that MTA induces DNA damage, S-phase cell cycle arrest, and caspase- dependent and –independent apoptosis. We show that an increment of the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and p53 is required for MTA-induced cytotoxicity by utilizing N-Acetyl-L-Cysteine (NAC) to blockage of ROS and p53-defective H1299 NSCLC cell line. Pretreatment of melanoma cells with NAC significantly decreased the DNA damage, p53 up-regulation and cytotoxic effect of MTA. MTA was able to induce p53 expression leading to up-regulation of p53-dependent genes Mcl-1 and PIDD, followed by a postranscriptional regulation of Mcl-1 improving apoptosis.
We found that MTA induced DNA damage and mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis in human melanoma cells in vitro and that the associated apoptosis was both caspase-dependent and –independent and p53-mediated. Our data suggest that MTA may be of therapeutic relevance for the future treatment of human malignant melanoma.
Molecular Cancer 04/2012; 11(1):25. DOI:10.1186/1476-4598-11-25 · 4.26 Impact Factor
"Haefen et al (2003)  treated BJAB cells with paclitaxel which induced a 3/8 amplification feedback loop that is also similar to the CAAP regulated amplification loop, except that this 3/8 loop does not include caspase-10, whereas CAAP controls a loop including both caspase-8 and -10 as amplifying executioners. In addition, an in vivo analysis of programmed cell death of dorsal root ganglia neurons in mice demonstrated that the apoptotic pathway proceeded via a 3/9 feedback amplification loop . Our identification of an ubiquitously expressed and evolutionary conserved CAAP gene as a negative modulator of the 3/9 feedback amplification loop requiring caspase-10 thus represents a novel pathway that might result in the development of new therapeutic strategies. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Here we identified an evolutionarily highly conserved and ubiquitously expressed protein (C9orf82) that shows structural similarities to the death effector domain of apoptosis-related proteins. RNAi knockdown of C9orf82 induced apoptosis in A-549 and MCF7/casp3-10b lung and breast carcinoma cells, respectively, but not in cells lacking caspase-3, caspase-10 or both. Apoptosis was associated with activated caspases-3, -8, -9 and -10, and inactivation of caspases 10 or 3 was sufficient to block apoptosis in this pathway. Apoptosis upon knockdown of C9orf82 was associated with increased caspase-10 expression and activation, which was required for the generation of an 11 kDa tBid fragment and activation of Caspase-9. These data suggest that C9orf82 functions as an anti-apoptotic protein that modulates a caspase-10 dependent mitochondrial caspase-3/9 feedback amplification loop. We designate this ubiquitously expressed and evolutionarily conserved anti-apoptotic protein Conserved Anti-Apoptotic Protein (CAAP). We also demonstrated that treatment of MCF7/casp3-10b cells with staurosporine and etoposides induced apoptosis and knockdown of CAAP expression. This implies that the CAAP protein could be a target for chemotherapeutic agents.
PLoS ONE 09/2011; 6(9):e25284. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0025284 · 3.23 Impact Factor
Nicolas Bigot, Audrey Mouche, Milena Preti, Séverine Loisel, Marie-Laure Renoud, Rémy Le Guével, Luc Sensebé, Karin Tarte, Rémy Pedeux
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