Article

Door to balloon and door to needle: temporal trends in delays to reperfusion.

Department of Cardiology, Soroka University Medical Center, Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva, Israel.
The Israel Medical Association journal: IMAJ (Impact Factor: 0.98). 01/2004; 5(12):852-5.
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Reperfusion practices have changed markedly over the last few years with the introduction of primary percutaneous coronary intervention. This technique has gained growing popularity in Israel, but little published data are available regarding the delays to primary PCI in real life in this country.
To examine temporal trends in time to reperfusion achieved in a large tertiary center over 6 years.
Between 1997 and 2002, 1,031 patients were admitted to our hospital with ST elevation myocardial infarction. Of these, 62% underwent thrombolysis and 38% primary PCI. The proportion of patients referred for primary PCI increased steadily, from 14% in 1997 to 68% in 2002. Door to treatment time among patients referred for thrombolysis or primary PCI was 54 +/- 42 and 117 +/- 77 minutes, respectively (P < 0.00001). The door to needle time in patients given thrombolysis remained virtually unchanged during the study period at around 54 minutes. In contrast, the door to balloon time progressively and substantially decreased, from 175 +/- 164 minutes in 1997 to 96 +/- 52 minutes in 2002.
There is a steady increase in the proportion of patients referred for primary PCI than for thrombolysis. The door to needle delay in patients given thrombolysis substantially exceeds the recommended time. The door to balloon time has declined considerably but still slightly exceeds the recommended time. Given the inherent delay between initiation of lysis and arterial recanalization, it appears from our experience that PCI does not substantially delay arterial reperfusion as compared to thrombolysis. Efforts should continue to minimize delays to reperfusion therapy.

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    ABSTRACT: Door to balloon time is important in the outcome of ST-elevation myocardial infarction treated with primary percutaneous intervention. This review summarizes prognostic factors for door to balloon time in STEMI patients presenting to a PCI capable hospital. NLM Gateway and Cochrane CENTRAL are the primary data sources. Searched reports were screened by title and abstract and full texts were located for potentially relevant articles. References from the selected articles and relevant background papers were hand searched for additional reports. Articles were reviewed and assessed for risk of bias. The results are summarized without meta-analysis. 90 papers are included in the review. Individual study quality was variable but was generally low. A number of patient characteristics, hospital characteristics, physician characteristics, care processes and "other" factors were associated with door to balloon time. Prognostic factors for longer times include: pre-hospital delay in presentation, cerebrovascular disease, absence of chest pain, lower PCI volume and specialization hospital, lower sum ST elevation, absence of Q waves and left bundle branch block. Shorter times were associated with: presentation during regular hours, PCI in a more recent year, 24 hour on site cardiology, pre-hospital ECG, single call to central page to activate the catheterization lab, ER physician activating the cath lab, lab staff arriving within 20 min of paging and culprit vessel PCI before full diagnostic angiography. Understanding prognostic factors for door to balloon time can likely lead to improved quality of care for STEMI.
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