Chronic ethanol consumption enhances interleukin-1-mediated signal transduction in rat liver and in cultured hepatocytes.
ABSTRACT Interleukin-1 (IL-1) is a central mediator of the inflammatory process. Increased serum levels of IL-1 have been reported in alcoholics with liver damage, but it remains unknown whether chronic ethanol intake, in the presence or absence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), activates IL-1 release and signaling in the hepatocyte.
IL-1beta and IL-10 release, expression of their receptors (IL-1RI and IL-10R), and the IL-1RI signal transduction response were evaluated in livers and cultured hepatocytes from ethanol-fed or pair-fed rats exposed in vivo or in vitro to LPS, ethanol, or both.
Chronic ethanol intake increased both the serum levels of IL-1beta and IL-10 and the expression of IL-1RI, but not of IL-10R, in the liver microsomal fraction. In vivo LPS administration potentiated the ethanol-induced release of plasma cytokines. It is interesting to note that ethanol, either given in a single dose or chronically fed, stimulated IL-1beta and IL-10 release from cultured hepatocytes. Stimulation of hepatocytes with IL-1beta caused a higher activation of IL-1-associated kinase, extracellular receptor-activated kinases 1 and 2, and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) in hepatocytes from alcohol-fed animals than from controls. Furthermore, in the absence of any stimulation, hepatocytes from alcohol-fed animals showed an activation of both kinases, as well as an increase in NF-kappaB binding. Our results suggest the participation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 pathway in ethanol-induced NF-kappaB activation, because treatment with PD-98059, an ERK1/2 inhibitor, partially suppressed IL-1beta-induced NF-kappaB expression.
Chronic ethanol intake potentiates the action of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-1beta, enhancing the release and signaling response of IL-1beta in the hepatocyte, which in conjunction with other cytokines or LPS may exacerbate the inflammatory damage associated with alcoholic liver disease.
Article: Ethanol intake enhances inflammatory mediators in brain: role of glial cells and TLR4/IL-1RI receptors.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The brain is one of the major target organs of ethanol actions, and its chronic and acute intoxication results in significant alterations in brain structure and function, and in some cases to neurodegeneration. Glial cells and Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are vital players in CNS immune response; dysregulation of this response plays an important role in brain damage and neurodegeneration. Ethanol has immunomodulatory effects and induces specific alterations in the TLRs response in many tissues. These actions depend on the cell type, ethanol dose and treatment duration, as well as the concomitant presence of pathogens and their characteristics. Recent findings indicate that low concentrations of ethanol (10 mM) promote inflammatory processes in brain and in glial cells by up-regulating cytokines and inflammatory mediators (iNOS, NO, COX-2), and by activating signaling pathways (IKK, MAPKs) and transcriptional factors (NF-kappaB, AP-1) implicated in inflammatory injury. TLR4/IL-1RI receptors may be involved in ethanol-mediated inflammatory signaling, since blocking these receptors abolishes the production of ethanol-induced inflammatory mediators and cell death. We propose that at low physiologically relevant concentrations, ethanol facilitates TLR4/IL-1RI recruitment into lipid rafts microdomains, leading to the activation and signaling of these receptors. In summary, current results suggest that TLR4/ IL-1RI are important targets of ethanol-induced inflammatory brain damage.Frontiers in Bioscience 02/2007; 12:2616-30. · 3.52 Impact Factor