Effects of Ginkgo biloba extract on cell proliferation and cytotoxicity in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells

School of Nutrition and Health Sciences, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan, China.
World Journal of Gastroenterology (Impact Factor: 2.37). 01/2004; 10(1):37-41.
Source: PubMed


To study the effect of Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) containing 22-27% flavonoids (ginkgo-flavone glycosides) and 5-7% terpenoids (ginkgolides and bilobalides) on cell proliferation and cytotoxicity in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells.
Human HCC cell lines (HepG2 and Hep3B) were incubated with various concentrations (0-1 000 mg/L) of EGb 761 solution. After 24 h incubation, cell proliferation and cytotoxicity were determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium (MTS) assay and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, respectively. After 48 h incubation, the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and p53 protein was measured by Western blotting.
The results showed that EGb 761 (50-1 000 mg/L) significantly suppressed cell proliferation and increased LDH release (P<0.05) in HepG2 and Hep3B cells compared with the control group. The cell proliferation of HepG2 and Hep3B cells treated with EGb 761 (1 000 mg/L) was 45% and 39% of the control group (P<0.05), respectively. LDH release of HepG2 cells without and with EGb 761 (1 000 mg/L) treatment was 6.7% and 37.7%, respectively, and that of Hep3B cells without and with EGb 761 (1 000 mg/L) treatment was 7.2% and 40.3%, respectively. The expression of PCNA and p53 protein in HepG2 cells treated with EGb 761 (1 000 mg/L) was 85% and 174% of the control group, respectively.
Ginkgo biloba extract significantly can suppress proliferation and increase cytotoxicity in HepG2 and Hep3B cells. Additionally, Ginkgo biloba extract can decrease PCNA and increase p53 expression in HepG2 cells.

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    • "Extracts from the leaves of Ginkgo biloba have been used in China and Western countries for centuries due to their antioxidant properties [22]. A standard G. biloba extract, EGb761 (commercial name), contains 22%–27% flavonoids and 5%–7% terpenoids, which are the most important active substances [23]. EGb761 can scavenge free radicals and neutralize ferry ion-induced peroxidants [24]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Heat-shock proteins (HSPs) are molecular chaperones that protect proteins from damage. HSP27 expression is associated with cancer transformation and invasion. Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb761), the most widely sold herbal supplement, has antiangiogenic effects and induces tumor apoptosis. Data regarding the effect of EGb761 on HSP expression is limited, particularly in cancer. HSP27 expression in paired tumors and normal lung tissues of 64 patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) were detected by real-time PCR, western blotting, and immunohistochemistry. NSCLC cell lines (A549/H441) were used to examine the migratory abilities in vitro. NSCLC tissue showed higher HSP27 expression than normal lung tissue. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that NSCLC patients with low HSP27 expression ratio (<1) had significantly longer survival time than those with a high expression ratio (>1) (p = 0.04). EGb761 inhibited HSP27 expression and migratory ability of A549/H441 cells, which is the same as HSP27-siRNA transfection effect. Moreover, EGb761 treatment activated the AKT and p38 pathways and did not affect the expression of PI3K, ERK, and JNK pathways. HSP27 is a poor prognostic indicator of NSCLC. EGb761 can decrease the migration ability of A549/H441 by inhibiting HSP27 expression most likely through AKT and p38 MAPK pathways activation.
    PLoS ONE 03/2014; 9(3):e91331. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0091331 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    • "Although some reports indicate that ginkgolic acid may have allergenic, cytotoxic, mutagenic and carcinogenic effects [15,23], systematic and detailed investigations of these events in animal studies and human observations have not been performed. In general, all compounds may have both therapeutic effects and side effects, which must be weighed in the development of clinically useful drugs. "
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    ABSTRACT: Several HIV protease mutations, which are resistant to clinical HIV protease inhibitors (PIs), have been identified. There is a great need for second-generation PIs with different chemical structures and/or with an alternative mode of inhibition. Ginkgolic acid is a natural herbal substance and a major component of the lipid fraction in the nutshells of the Ginkgo biloba tree. The objective of this study was to determine whether ginkgolic acid could inhibit HIV protease activity in a cell free system and HIV infection in human cells. Purified ginkgolic acid and recombinant HIV-1 HXB2 KIIA protease were used for the HIV protease activity assay. Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were used for HIV infection (HIV-1SF162 virus), determined by a p24gag ELISA. Cytotoxicity was also determined. Ginkgolic acid (31.2 µg/ml) inhibited HIV protease activity by 60%, compared with the negative control, and the effect was concentration-dependent. In addition, ginkgolic acid treatment (50 and 100 µg/ml) effectively inhibited the HIV infection at day 7 in a concentration-dependent manner. Ginkgolic acid at a concentration of up to 150 µg/ml demonstrated very limited cytotoxicity. Ginkgolic acid effectively inhibits HIV protease activity in a cell free system and HIV infection in PBMCs without significant cytotoxicity. Ginkgolic acid may inhibit HIV protease through different mechanisms than current FDA-approved HIV PI drugs. These properties of ginkgolic acid make it a promising therapy for HIV infection, especially as the clinical problem of viral resistance to HIV PIs continues to grow.
    Medical science monitor: international medical journal of experimental and clinical research 08/2012; 18(8):BR293-298. DOI:10.12659/MSM.883261 · 1.43 Impact Factor
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    • "Le Bars and colleagues conducted a 52-week double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled, multicenter clinical trial consisting of 309 patients with AD and multi-infarct dementia to study the efficacy and safety of EGb 761 (24% ginkgo-flavone glycosides and 6% terpenoids [73]). Patients were administered either EGb (120 mg/day) or placebo. "
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    ABSTRACT: A global health problem, traumatic brain injury (TBI) is especially prevalent in the current era of ongoing world military conflicts. Its pathological hallmark is one or more primary injury foci, followed by a spread to initially normal brain areas via cascades of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines resulting in an amplification of the original tissue injury by microglia and other central nervous system immune cells. In some cases this may predispose individuals to later development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The inflammatory-based progression of TBI has been shown to be active in humans for up to 17 years post TBI. Unfortunately, all neuroprotective drug trials have failed, and specific treatments remain less than efficacious. These poor results might be explained by too much of a scientific focus on neurons without addressing the functions of microglia in the brain, which are at the center of proinflammatory cytokine generation. To address this issue, we provide a survey of the TBI-related brain immunological mechanisms that may promote progression to AD. We discuss these immune and microglia-based inflammatory mechanisms involved in the progression of post-trauma brain damage to AD. Flavonoid-based strategies to oppose the antigen-presenting cell-like inflammatory phenotype of microglia will also be reviewed. The goal is to provide a rationale for investigations of inflammatory response following TBI which may represent a pathological link to AD. In the end, a better understanding of neuroinflammation could open therapeutic avenues for abrogation of secondary cell death and behavioral symptoms that may mediate the progression of TBI to later AD.
    Journal of Neuroinflammation 08/2012; 9(1):185. DOI:10.1186/1742-2094-9-185 · 5.41 Impact Factor
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