Effects of endogenous carbon monoxide on collagen synthesis in pulmonary artery in rats under hypoxia.
ABSTRACT To study the role of endogenous carbon monoxide (CO) in collagen metabolism during hypoxic pulmonary vascular remodeling, a total of 18 Wistar rats were used in the study and they were randomly divided into three groups: hypoxia group (n = 6), hypoxia with zinc protoporphyrin-IX (ZnPP-IX) group (n = 6) and control group (n = 6). The measurement of mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) and carboxyhemoglobin (HbCO) formation in lung tissue homogenates was measured. A morphometric analysis of pulmonary vessels was performed, in which the percentage of muscularized arteries (MA); partially muscularized arteries (PMA) and nonmuscularized arteries (NMV) in small and median pulmonary vessels, relative medial thickness (RMT) and relative medial area (RMA) of pulmonary arteries were analyzed. Collagen type I and III and transforming growth factor-beta3 (TGF-beta3) expressions were detected by immunohistochemical assay. The expressions of procollagen type I and III and TGF-beta3 mRNA were detected by in situ hybridization. The results showed that ZnPP-IX significantly increased mPAP and markedly decreased HbCO formation in lung tissue homogenates in rats under hypoxia (P < 0.01). In the hypoxia rats treated with ZnPP-IX, the percentage of muscularized arteries of small and median pulmonary vessels was obviously increased, and RMT and RMA of intra-acinar muscularized pulmonary arteries were markedly increased compared with hypoxic rats. Ultrastructural changes, such as hyperplasia and hypertrophy of endothelial cells (ECs) and smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and the increased number of SMCs in synthetic phenotype were found in intra-acinar pulmonary muscularized arteries of hypoxic rats treated with ZnPP-IX. Meanwhile, ZnPP-IX promoted the expression of collagen type I and III and TGF-beta3 protein in pulmonary arteries of rats under hypoxia (P < 0.01). Furthermore, ZnPP-IX elevated obviously the expressions of procollagen type I and III mRNA, and TGF-beta3 mRNA in pulmonary arteries of rats under hypoxia (P < 0.01). The results of this study suggested that ZnPP-IX played an important role in promoting collagen synthesis in pulmonary arteries of rats with hypoxic pulmonary structural remodeling by increasing the expression of TGF-beta3. The above findings also suggested a possible role of endogenous CO in the pathogenesis of chronic hypoxic pulmonary hypertension.
- Kidney International - KIDNEY INT. 01/1997; 51(5):1388-1396.
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Carbon monoxide (CO) is a product of the enzyme heme oxygenase (HO; EC 126.96.36.199). In vascular smooth muscle cells, exogenously administered CO increases cyclic guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cGMP), which is an important regulator of vessel tone. We report here that smooth muscle cells produce CO via HO and that it regulates cGMP levels in these cells. Hypoxia, which has profound effects on vessel tone, significantly increased the transcriptional rate of the HO-1 gene resulting in corresponding increases of its mRNA and HO enzymatic activity. In addition, under the same conditions, rat aortic and pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells accumulated high levels of cGMP following a similar time course to that of HO-1 production. The increased accumulation of cGMP in smooth muscle cells required the enzymatic activity of HO, since it was abolished by a specific HO inhibitor, tin protoporphyrin. In contrast, N omega-nitro-L-arginine, a potent inhibitor of nitric oxide (NO) synthesis, had no effect on cGMP produced by smooth muscle cells, indicating that NO is not responsible for the activation of guanylyl cyclase in this setting. Furthermore, conditioned medium from hypoxic smooth muscle cells stimulated cGMP production in recipient cells and this stimulation was completely inhibited by tin protoporphyrin or hemoglobin, an inhibitor of CO production and a scavenger of CO, respectively. This report shows that HO-1 is expressed by vascular smooth muscle cells and that its product, CO, may regulate vascular tone under physiologic and pathophysiologic (such as hypoxic) conditions.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 03/1995; 92(5):1475-9. · 9.74 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Carbon monoxide, an activator of guanylyl cyclase, is formed by the action of the enzyme heme oxygenase. By in situ hybridization in brain slices, discrete neuronal localization of messenger RNA for the constitutive form of heme oxygenase throughout the brain has been demonstrated. This localization is essentially the same as that for soluble guanylyl cyclase messenger RNA. In primary cultures of olfactory neurons, zinc protoporphyrin-9, a potent selective inhibitor of heme oxygenase, depletes endogenous guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cGMP). Thus, carbon monoxide, like nitric oxide, may be a physiologic regulator of cGMP. These findings, together with the neuronal localizations of heme oxygenase, suggest that carbon monoxide may function as a neurotransmitter.Science 02/1993; 259(5093):381-4. · 31.03 Impact Factor